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Table 1 Differences on quality of life by demographic variables at T1 and T4

From: Prediction of maternal quality of life on preterm birth and low birthweight: a longitudinal study

   Physical health Mental health Social health General health
  n M±SD Z/X 2 p M±SD Z/X 2 p M±SD Z/X 2 p M±SD Z/X 2 p
T1              
Parity    -.77 .44 −1.80 .07 −1.62 .10 −2.06 .04
  Primipara 111 60.90±15.29   71.26±16.24   67.30±16.29   66.49±11.70  
  Multipara 87 57.82±20.37   66.09±19.96   62.53±17.73   62.15±14.77  
Employment    -.51 .61 −4.05 <.001 −3.06 .002 −3.39 .001
  Employed 126 60.16±17.43   72.78±18.09   67.94±16.94   66.96±13.11  
  Unemployed 72 58.47±18.28   62.36±16.23   60.42±16.31   60.42±12.61  
Education    -.24 .81 −2.10 .04 −1.52 .13 −1.15 .25
  Lower than college 63 59.84±20.12   64.76±19.25   62.22±16.50   62.28±14.87  
  College or higher 135 59.41±16.56   70.96±17.27   66.59±17.20   65.65±12.38  
Happy or unhappy about the pregnancy   1.07 .59 8.70 .01 3.59 .17 6.94 .03
  Happy 160 60.06±17.43   70.25±17.55   66.06±17.20   65.46±12.77  
  Unhappy 13 54.62±15.06   56.92±10.32   57.69±14.23   56.41±8.97  
  Uncertain 25 58.80±20.88   67.20±22.46   63.60±17.05   63.20±16.82  
T4              
Parity    -.71 .48 -.24 .81 −1.09 .28 -.09 .93
  Primipara 111 59.55±19.42   69.19±20.85   61.62±15.46   66.79±15.54  
  Multipara 87 70.57±20.65   70.11±21.16   58.51±17.56   66.40±16.27  
Employment   −1.51 .13 −3.21 .001 −2.71 .01 −3.02 .003
  Employed 116 71.81±19.32   73.45±20.26   63.19±14.12   69.48±14.94  
  Unemployed 82 67.44±20.60   64.15±20.78   56.10±18.58   62.56±16.24  
Being taken care of    -.17 .87 -.68 .50 -.18 .86 -.21 .83
  Yes 192 70.10±19.66   69.43±20.70   60.31±16.37   66.61±15.63  
  No 6 66.67±29.44   75.00±29.50   58.33±20.41   66.67±23.29  
Baby sitter   −1.66 .10 −1.59 .11 −1.77 .08 −1.84 .07
  Yes 155 71.23±19.72   70.90±20.24   61.35±16.00   67.83±15.22  
  No 43 65.58±20.27   64.88±22.93   56.28±17.60   62.25±17.35  
Baby’s gender    -.67 .51 −1.73 .08 -.34 .73 −1.32 .19
  Male 106 70.94±20.07   71.98±20.54   60.75±15.16   67.89±15.65  
  Female 91 69.23±19.68   67.14±21.10   59.67±17.98   65.35±15.95  
Baby’s sleep patterns   3.70 .16 1.49 .48 2.81 .25 3.39 .18
  Serious problem 15 60.00±25.07   64.67±24.75   56.67±13.45   60.44±18.38  
  Manageable 73 69.04±18.12   67.81±21.42   57.67±15.14   64.84±14.98  
  Small problem 89 71.46±19.57   71.24±19.70   61.24±16.91   67.98±15.56  
  Not a problem 21 74.29±22.26   72.38±21.89   67.62±18.95   71.43±16.88  
Maternity leave    .20 .91 2.24 .33 4.00 .14 1.55 .46
  Paid leave 96 73.33±18.33   74.58±19.41   64.79±13.69   70.90±13.83  
  No-pay leave 26 69.62±22.36   69.23±22.96   56.92±18.28   65.26±19.05  
 No leave/not employed 76 65.92±20.47   63.42±20.69   55.66±17.61   61.67±15.68  
Birth method   −1.63 .10 -.19 .85 -.30 .77 -.68 .50
  Vaginal delivery 143 60.98±17.21   69.51±17.78   65.38±17.11   65.29±12.61  
  Cesarean section 54 56.48±18.14   68.15±18.84   64.44±17.12   63.02±14.81  
  1. T1 = 25–29 gestational weeks; T4 = 4–6 weeks postpartum.