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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of women’s experience of maternal depressive symptoms by pregnancy intention, social support and other characteristics, Southwestern Ethiopia, 2012

From: The association of unwanted pregnancy and social support with depressive symptoms in pregnancy: evidence from rural Southwestern Ethiopia

Variables    Depressed mood, OR (95% CI)
  Unadjusted OR Adjusted1OR
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Pregnancy intention   
  Wanted (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Mistimed 1.33(0.84-2.10) 0.97(0.56-1.66)
  Unwanted 2.76(1.61-4.70)*** 1.96(1.04 -3.69)*
Social support   
  Low (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Medium 0.17(0.10-.31)*** 0.27 (0.14-0.53)***
  High 0.14(0.07-.25)*** 0.23(0.11-0.47)***
Educational status   
  No education (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Primary 0.46(0.26-.79)* 0.56(0.30-1.05)
  Secondary & above 1.10(0.46-2.66) 1.83(0.64-5.27)
Wealth tertile   
  Lower (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Middle 1.16 (0.73-1.85) 1.43 (0.82-2.51)
  Upper 0.73(0.44-1.20) 0.88(0.48-1.62)
Occupation   
  Housewife (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Farmer 4.54(2.80-7.37)** 3.43(1.95-6.05)**
  Employed/family business 2.09(1.06-4.14)* 2.50(1.13-5.56)*
Perceived work burden in pregnancy   
  Too difficult (reference) 1.00 1.00
  Moderate 0.56(0.34-.92)* 0.72(0.41-1.26)
  Easy 0.49(0.30-.81)** 0.68(0.38-1.19)
Food insecurity 6.79(4.31-10.72)*** 4.60(2.75-7.70)***
History of miscarriage or stillbirth 2.62 (1.47-4.67)** 1.27(0.62-2.57)
Partner violence during pregnancy 3.75(1.42-8.92)** 3.41(1.18-9.10)**
  1. 1Adjusted for education, wealth tertile, occupation, perceived work burden, food security status, history of miscarriage or still birth and partner physical violence during pregnancy.
  2. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.