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Table 1 Studies that reported the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure using maternal self-reports and meconium testing

From: A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

Country, province/territory or state (if available) Reference Year(s) of study Sample size Setting Maternal age (mean; years) Tool used to obtain self-reported data Trimester when alcohol was consumed, number of mothers and percent of self-reported drinkers (if available) Cumulative FAEE cut-point Prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure Increase in sensitivity (meconium testing versus self-reports)a
          Prevalence via self-reports Prevalence via meconium testing  
          Number of mothers Percentage of mothers Number of mothers Percentage of mothers  
Canada, Ontario Gareri et al. [15] 2004-05 682 Regional birthing hospitals n/a Questionnaire n/a 2 n▪mol/g 5 0.5% 17 2.5% 5 times
Canada, Ontario Goh et al. [42] 2006-07 50 High-risk obstetric unit n/a Medical record n/a 2 n▪mol/g 1 2.0% 15 30.0% 15 times
Germany, Erlangen Bakdash et al. [43] n/a 602 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology n/a Questionnaire, with CAGE [47] n/a 500 n▪g/g (~2 n▪mol/g) 1 0.2% 43 7.1% 43 times
Italy, Emilia Pichini et al. [44]b n/a 96 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 28.4 Questionnaire n/a 2 n▪mol/g 3 3.1% 8 8.3% 2.7 times
Italy Pichini et al. [45] n/a 607 Neonatal wards of public hospitals 31 Questionnaire, with AUDIT [48] All three trimesters 2 n▪mol/g 65c 10.7% 48 7.9% 0.7 times
Spain, Barcelona Garcia-Algar et al. [46] n/a 353 Hospital (low SES) 29 n/a n/a 2 n▪mol/g 48 13.6% 159 45.0% 3.3 times
Spain, Barcelona Manich et al. [36] n/a 62 Neonatal hospital n/a Questionnaire n/a 2 n▪mol/g 0 0% 10 16.1% 16.1 times
Spain, Barcelona Pichini et al. [44]b n/a 81 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit 28.3 Questionnaire n/a 2 n▪mol/g 4 4.9% 34 42.0% 8.5 times
Uruguay, Montevideo Hutson et al. [37]; Magri et al. [38, 39]d 2005 900 Public Hospitals 25.4 Questionnaire, with CAGE [47] n/a 2 n▪mol/g 331 36.8% 362 43.5% 1.2 times
USA, Hawaii Derauf et al. [40, 41]e 1999 422 Urban regional perinatal center 29 (median) Medical record 1st trimester: 5 (21.7%); 1st & 2nd trimester: 2 (8.7%); All three trimesters: 4 (17.4%); Not documented: 12 (52.2%) 50 n▪g/g 18f 4.3% 72 17.1% 4.0 times
  1. AUDIT: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; FAEE: fatty acid ethyl esters; n/a: not available; SES: socio-economic status.
  2. aLevels of increased sensitivity may not total percentage figures obtained via meconium testing divided by percentage figures obtained via self-reports due to rounding errors.
  3. bPichini et al. [44] reported results for two study sites (Italy and Spain).
  4. cReported “daily” consumption.
  5. dHutson et al. [37] and Magri et al. [38, 39] were published in iteration.
  6. eDerauf et al. [40, 41] are dual publication.
  7. fExcludes 5 women who reported alcohol use during the first trimester only.