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Table 1 Bivariate comparisons of postpartum mental health symptoms by participant characteristics

From: Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

 Participant characteristics Postpartum mental health symptoms
Stress Anxiety Depression OCD PTSD
  M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t
Age                
 Less than 33 years (n = 50) 14.76 (9.78) 11.98-17.54 0.43 5.72 (6.50) 3.87-7.57 1.29 5.88 (5.71) 4.26-7.50 0.24 5.90 (7.61) 3.74-8.06 0.46 7.58 (8.86) 5.06-10.10 0.27
 33 years or older (n = 50) 13.96 (8.68) 11.49-16.43   4.32 (4.03) 3.17-5.46   5.60 (5.74) 3.97-7.23   5.26 (6.12) 3.52-7.00   7.16 (6.71) 5.25-9.07  
Race                
 Caucasian (n = 71) 14.85 (9.44) 12.61-17.08 0.82 5.04 (5.52) 3.74-6.35 0.06 5.77 (5.89) 4.38-7.17 0.09 6.42 (7.43) 4.66-8.18 1.94 6.93 (7.28) 5.21-8.65 0.88
 Other (n = 29) 13.17 (8.66) 9.88-16.47   4.97 (5.28) 2.96-6.97   5.66 (5.29) 3.64-7.67   3.52 (4.81) 1.69-5.35   8.45 (9.06) 5.00-11.86  
Education                
 Less than high school (n = 4) 17.50 (12.79) 2.86-37.86 0.69 13.50 (9.57) 1.73-28.73 3.35*** 11.00 (6.63) 0.44-21.55 1.91 10.00 (10.10) 6.07-26.07 1.32 19.00 (14.90) 4.71-42.71 3.17**
 High school or greater (n = 96) 14.23 (9.10) 12.39-16.07   4.67 (4.96) 3.66-5.67   5.52 (5.59) 4.39-6.65   5.40 (6.72) 4.03-6.76   6.89 (7.13) 5.44-8.33  
Annual Income                
 Less than $60,000 (n = 21) 15.2 4 (8.40) 11.41-19.06 0.18 8.29 (7.05) 5.08-11.50 3.34*** 7.14 (5.78) 4.51-9.77 1.05 6.29 (8.29) 2.51-10.06 0.57 11.43 (9.76) 6.99-15.87 2.92**
 $60,000 or more (n = 62) 14.81 (9.68) 12.35-17.26   3.87 (4.49) 2.73-5.01   5.61 (5.77) 4.15-7.08   5.31 (6.32) 3.70-6.91   5.89 (6.63) 4.20-7.57  
Relationship Status                
 Single (n = 5) 22.40 (8.53) 11.81-32.99 2.03* 12.40 (6.07) 4.87-19.93 3.27*** 12.40 (3.29) 8.32-16.48 2.77** 7.20 (7.33) 1.90-16.30 0.54 22.40 (8.44) 11.92-32.88 4.89***
 In a relationship (n = 95) 13.94 (9.09) 12.09-15.79   4.63 (5.14) 3.58-5.68   5.39 (5.59) 4.25-6.53   5.49 (6.88) 4.09-6.90   6.58 (6.98) 5.16-8.00  
Prior Children                
 No (n = 59) 13.46 (9.33) 11.03-15.89 1.18 4.68 (4.91) 3.40-5.96 0.75 5.22 (5.45) 3.80-6.64 1.09 6.05 (7.48) 4.10-8.00 0.82 6.59 (7.29) 4.69-8.49 1.19
 Yes (n = 41) 15.66 (8.99) 12.82-18.50   5.51 (6.13) 3.58-7.45   6.49 (6.03) 4.58-8.39   4.90 (5.94) 3.03-6.78   8.49 (8.50) 5.80-11.17  
  1. Note. N = 100. OCD = obsessive-compulsive disorder. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder. Comparisons are t-tests of the mean scores on the postpartum mental health scales. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.