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Table 2 Bivariate comparisons of postpartum mental health symptoms by intimate partner abuse

From: Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

Intimate partner abuse Postpartum mental health symptoms
Stress   Anxiety   Depression   OCD   PTSD  
  M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t M (SD) 95% CI t
Before pregnancy                
Psychological aggression                
 No (n = 17) 10.00 (8.00) 5.89-14.11 2.18* 3.29 (4.24) 1.11-5.47 1.45 4.12 (4.61) 1.75-6.49 1.29 3.12 (5.59) 0.24-5.99 1.63 4.29 (6.23) 1.09-7.50 1.80
 Yes (n = 83) 15.25 (9.23) 13.24-17.27   5.37 (5.60) 4.15-6.60   6.07 (5.86) 4.79-7.35   6.08 (7.04) 4.55-7.62   8.00 (8.00) 6.25-9.75  
Physical assault                
 No (n = 80) 13.50 (9.01) 11.50-15.50 1.89 4.47 (5.00) 3.36-5.59 2.04* 5.12 (5.32) 3.94-6.31 2.20* 4.75 (6.24) 3.36-6.14 2.47* 6.04 (6.80) 4.52-7.55 3.61***
 Yes (n = 20) 17.80 (9.42) 13.39-22.21   7.20 (6.57) 4.13-10.27   8.20 (6.58) 5.12-11.28   8.90 (8.38) 4.98-12.82   12.70 (9.44) 8.28-17.12  
Sexual coercion                
 No (n = 85) 13.74 (9.08) 11.78-15.70 1.61 4.35 (4.68) 3.34-5.36 3.05** 5.44 (5.68) 4.21-6.66 1.28 4.68 (5.92) 3.41-5.96 3.25** 6.55 (7.43) 4.95-8.16 2.55*
 Yes (n = 15) 17.87 (9.46) 12.63-23.10   8.80 (7.66) 4.56-13.04   7.47 (5.68) 4.32-10.61   10.67 (9.58) 5.36-15.97   12.00 (8.60) 7.24-16.76  
Number of types                
 0 (n = 16) 10.12 (8.25) 5.73-14.52 4.21* 3.50 (4.29) 1.21-5.79 1.05 4.00 (4.73) 1.48-6.52 1.16 3.31 (5.71) 0.27-6.36 5.63** 3.87 (6.18) 0.58-7.17 3.41*
 1 (n = 58) 13.97 (8.60) 11.71-16.23   4.38 (4.72) 3.14-5.62   5.38 (5.43) 3.95-6.81   4.67 (5.64) 3.19-6.16   6.50 (6.69) 4.74-8.26  
 2 or 3 (n = 26) 17.85 (10.10) 13.77-21.93   7.38 (6.83) 4.63-10.14   7.62 (6.48) 5.00-10.23   9.00 (8.82) 5.44-12.56   11.46 (9.51) 7.62-15.30  
During pregnancy                
Psychological aggression                
 No (n = 32) 11.31 (7.98) 8.44-14.19 2.32* 4.50 (4.74) 2.79-16.19 0.66 5.06 (4.60) 3.40-6.72 0.81 3.44 (5.45) 1.47-5.40 2.18* 5.69 (7.78) 2.88-8.49 1.48
 Yes (n = 68) 15.79 (9.45) 13.51-18.08   5.26 (5.74) 3.88-6.21   6.06 (6.15) 4.57-7.55   6.59 (7.27) 4.83-8.35   8.16 (7.77) 6.28-10.04  
Physical assault                
 No (n = 88) 13.82 (8.99) 11.91-15.72 1.61 4.80 (5.20) 3.69-5.90 1.12 5.39 (5.37) 4.25-6.52 1.70 4.81 (6.23) 3.49-6.13 3.18** 6.65 (7.65) 5.03-8.27 2.57*
 Yes (n = 12) 18.33 (10.19) 11.86-24.81   6.67 (6.89) 2.29-11.05   8.33 (7.48) 3.58-13.08   11.25 (8.85) 5.62-16.88   12.67 (7.27) 8.05-17.28  
Sexual coercion                
 No (n = 88) 13.75 (9.07) 11.83-15.67 1.81 4.55 (4.83) 3.52-5.57 2.42* 5.55 (5.62) 4.35-6.74 0.92 4.70 (5.98) 3.44-5.97 3.66*** 6.84 (7.75) 5.20-8.48 1.85
 Yes (n = 12) 18.83 (9.40) 12.86-24.80   8.50 (8.10) 3.36-13.64   7.17 (6.29) 3.17-11.17   12.00 (9.57) 5.92-18.08   11.25 (7.53) 6.46-16.04  
  M (SD) 95% CI F M (SD) 95% CI F M (SD) 95% CI F M (SD) 95% CI F M (SD) 95% CI F
Number of types                
 0 (n = 30) 11.60 (8.16) 8.55-14.65 5.94** 4.80 (4.74) 3.03-6.57 1.68 5.20 (4.66) 3.46-6.94 2.59 3.67 (5.56) 1.59-5.74 11.46*** 5.70 (7.91) 2.74-8.66 7.91***
 1 (n = 53) 14.19 (8.84) 11.75-16.63   4.34 (5.02) 2.96-5.72   5.25 (5.66) 3.69-6.81   4.58 (5.67) 3.02-6.15   6.87 (7.47) 4.81-8.93  
 2 or 3 (n = 17) 19.76 (10.22) 14.51-25.02   7.53 (7.16) 3.85-11.21   8.24 (7.03) 4.62-11.85   12.06 (8.80) 7.53-16.58   11.88 (7.49) 8.03-15.73  
  1. Note. N = 100. OCD = obsessive-compulsive disorder. PTSD = posttraumatic stress disorder. Comparisons are t-tests or F-tests, as appropriate, of the mean scores on the postpartum mental health scales. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001.