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Table 1 Selected maternal characteristics, antenatal risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes, by ethnicity and diabetes in pregnancy status, Alberta, Canada, 2000–2009 (n = 427,058)

From: Diabetes in pregnancy among First Nations women in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective analysis

  Women without diabetes (n = 407,855) Women with diabetes (n = 19,173)
  First Nations (n = 26,793) Non-First Nations (n = 381,092) P-value First Nations (n = 1,513) Non-First Nations (n = 17,660) P-value
Maternal characteristics and risks       
Age (years) 24.7 (5.8) 28.7 (5.5) <0.001 28.9 (6.2) 31.6 (5.3) <0.001
Rural 51.8 (51.2-52.4) 15.9 (15.8-16.0) <0.001 52.5 (49.9-55.0) 11.4 (10.9-11.9) <0.001
Weight ≥ 91 kg 10.8 (10.5-11.2) 8.0 (7.9-8.1) <0.001 31.7 (29.3-34.1) 18.4 (17.9-19.0) <0.001
Pre-existing hypertension 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.9 (0.9-1.0) 0.367 4.2 (3.3-5.4) 3.3 (3.0-3.5) 0.041
Pregnancy induced hypertension 4.4 (4.2-4.7) 5.7 (5.6-5.7) <0.001 8.1 (6.7-9.7) 12.2 (11.7-12.7) 0.193
Proteinuria 2.4 (2.2-2.6) 1.9 (1.9-2.0) <0.001 5.6 (4.5-6.9) 3.9 (3.9-4.2) 0.001
Anemia 2.3 (2.1-2.5) 0.6 (0.5-0.6) <0.001 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 0.5 (0.4-0.7) <0.001
Smoker 54.7 (54.1-55.3) 17.0 (16.9-17.2) <0.001 49.4 (46.8-51.9) 14.3 (13.8-14.8) <0.001
Alcohol anytime 10.4 (10.0-11.0) 1.7 (1.5-1.8) <0.001 7.8 (6.2-9.8) 1.0 (0.8-1.1) <0.001
Drug dependant 6.6 (6.3-6.9) 0.9 (0.8-0.9) <0.001 3.5 (2.6-4.6) 0.4 (0.3-0.5) <0.001
Antepartum risk ≥ 7 10.4 (10.1-10.8) 5.1 (5.1-5.2) <0.001 30.7 (28.4-33.1) 19.8 (19.2-2.4) <0.001
Pregnancy Outcomes       
Induction of labour 23.8 (23.1-24.3) 27.3 (27.1-27.4) <0.001 41.7 (39.2-44.2) 40.9 (40.2-41.7) 0.554
Cesarean section 19.1 (18.6-19.5) 25.5 (25.4-25.6) <0.001 35.4 (33.0-37.8) 39.8 (39.0-40.9) 0.001
Low birth weight 8.0 (7.6-8.3) 7.1 (7.0-7.2) <0.001 7.2 (6.0-8.6) 8.6 (8.2-9.0) 0.063
High birth weight 16.7 (16.3-17.2) 11.1 (10.9-11.1) <0.001 29.3 (27.0-31.6) 12.9 (12.4-13.4) <0.001
Breastfeeding 71.2 (70.5-72.8) 88.3 (88.2-88.6) <0.001 74.7 (69.3-79.6) 86.3 (85.4-87.1) <0.001
Preterm 9.2 (8.9-9.6) 8.8 (8.7-8.9) 0.026 17.3 (15.4-19.3) 14.7 (14.2-15.3) 0.008
Stillbirth 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 0.7 (0.6-0.7) <0.001 2.1 (1.5-2.9) 0.6 (0.5-0.8) <0.001
Congenital anomaly 1.8 (1.6-2.0) 1.5 (1.4-1.5) 0.001 1.4 (0.8-2.3) 1.7 (1.5-2.1) 0.243
Neonatal intensive care unit admission 8.6 (8.3-9.0) 11.2 (11.1-11.3) <0.001 16.7 (14.8-15.7) 19.4 (18.8-20.0) <0.001
  1. Data presented are mean (standard deviation) or percentage (95% confidence intervals).