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Table 2 Selected maternal characteristics, antenatal risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes for First Nations pregnancies, by diabetes in pregnancy status and type, Alberta, Canada, 2000–2009 (n = 28,306)

From: Diabetes in pregnancy among First Nations women in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective analysis

  Women without diabetes (n = 26,793) Women with diabetes (n = 1,513) P-value Women with pre-existing diabetes (n = 289) Women with GDM (n = 1,224) P-value
Maternal characteristics and risks       
Age (years) 24.7 (5.8) 28.9 (6.2) <0.001 29.2 (6.03) 28.8 (6.27) 0.407
Rural 51.8 (51.2-52.4) 52.5 (49.9-55.0) 0.614 55.4 (49.43-61.18) 51.8 (48.96-54.63) 0.275
Weight ≥ 91 kg 10.8 (10.5-11.2) 31.7 (29.3-34.1) <0.001 37.0 (31.44-42.87) 30.4 (27.85-33.08) 0.030
Pre-existing hypertension 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 4.2 (3.3-5.4) <0.001 9.3 (6.25-13.30) 3.0 (2.14-4.14) <0.001
Pregnancy induced hypertension 4.4 (4.2-4.7) 8.1 (6.7-9.7) <0.001 10.0 (6.82-14.09) 11.3 (9.56-13.18) 0.545
Proteinuria 2.4 (2.2-2.6) 5.6 (4.5-6.9) <0.001 7.6 (4.83-11.30) 5.2 (3.98-6.54) 0.102
Anemia 2.3 (2.1-2.5) 1.3 (0.8-2.0) 0.013 0.7 (0.08-2.48) 1.5 (0.87-2.31) 0.297
Smoker 54.7 (54.1-55.3) 49.4 (46.8-51.9) <0.001 48.1 (42.21-54.02) 49.7 (46.83-52.51) 0.630
Alcohol anytime 10.4 (10.0-11.0) 7.8 (6.2-9.8) 0.001 6.9 (3.71-12.33) 7.9 (6.15-10.08) 0.285
Drug dependant 6.6 (6.3-6.9) 3.5 (2.6-4.6) <0.001 4.9 (2.69-8.05) 3.2 (2.25-4.32) 0.155
Antepartum risk ≥ 7 10.4 (10.1-10.8) 30.7 (28.4-33.1) <0.001 47.1 (41.19-52.99) 26.9 (24.41-29.46) <0.001
Pregnancy Outcomes       
Induction of labour 23.8 (23.1-24.3) 41.7 (39.2-44.2) <0.001 33.6 (28.14-39.33) 43.6 (40.83-46.46) 0.002
Cesarean section 19.1 (18.6-19.5) 35.4 (33.0-37.8) <0.001 46.7 (40.85-52.65) 32.7 (30.06-35.39) <0.001
Low birth weight 8.0 (7.6-8.3) 7.2 (6.0-8.6) 0.308 9.0 (5.96-12.90) 6.8 (5.45-8.35) 0.193
High birth weight 16.7 (16.3-17.2) 29.3 (27.0-31.6) <0.001 26.3 (21.32-31.77) 30.0 (27.39-32.61) 0.220
Breastfeeding 71.2 (70.5-72.8) 74.7 (69.3-79.6) 0.266 77.5 (61.55-89.16) 74.2 (68.34-79.49) 0.656
Preterm 9.2 (8.9-9.6) 17.3 (15.4-19.3) <0.001 22.8 (18.13-28.12) 16.0 (13.96-18.15) 0.005
Stillbirth 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 2.1 (1.5-2.9) 0.002 3.8 (1.92-6.71) 1.7 (1.07-2.61) 0.027
Congenital anomaly 1.8 (1.6-2.0) 1.4 (0.8-2.3) 0.437 3.1 (1.36-6.06) 0.9 (0.43-1.79) 0.032
Neonatal intensive care unit admission 8.6 (8.3-9.0) 16.7 (14.8-15.7) <0.001 19.0 (14.62-24.07) 16.1 (14.08-18.31) 0.326
  1. Data presented are mean (standard deviation) or percentage (95% confidence intervals).