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Table 1 Characterization of study participants

From: Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1

A Mother Lean group Obese group Obese GDM group P-value1  
  Number of women (n = 44) 15 13 16   
  Age (year) 31.1 ± 3.1 28.5 ± 4.2 32.6 ± 4.8 0.040c  
  Primiparae (%) [n] 86.7 [13] 76.9 [10] 56.2 [9] 0.299  
  BMI (kg/m2) before pregnancy 20.1 (19.5-22.0) 36.1 (32.2-38.3) 33.4 (31.1-36.1) < 0.001a,b  
  Gestational weight gain (kg) 16.8 ± 4.4 11.6 ± 5.6 12.1 ± 5.8 0.022a,b  
  Parental history of diabetes (%) [n] 13.3 [2] 38.5 [5] 43.8 [7] 0.181  
  Duration of pregnancy (days) 278.2 ± 8.1 279.5 ± 8.2 271.3 ± 7.0 0.012c  
Mode of delivery      
  Spontaneous / cesarean section, n 9/6 6/7 6/10 0.483  
75 g OGTT (mmol/L)      
  Glucose fasted 4.22 (3.89-4.39) 4.33 (4.00-4.63) 5.11 (4.44-5.56) < 0.001b,c  
  Glucose 1 h 7.41 ± 0.90 7.34 ± 1.42 10.85 ± 1.34 < 0.001b,c  
  Glucose 2 h 6.30 ± 0.96 6.49 ± 1.21 8.00 ± 1.57 < 0.001b,c  
  Area under curve (AUC) Glucose 12.54 (11.90-13.24) 11.85 (11.65-14.10) 16.37 (16.04-18.13) < 0.001b,c  
Fasted plasma/serum parameters at 3rd trimester
  Gestational age (weeks) 33.9 ± 1.4 34.3 ± 1.7 34.1 ± 1.0 0.836  
  Glucose (mmol/L) 4.10 ± 0.32 4.19 ± 0.40 4.39 ± 0.28 0.161  
  Insulin (μU/mL) 5.66 (4.76-10.05) 11.54 (9.28-20.54) 13.99 (11.22-17.97) 0.002a,b  
  HOMA-IR-index 1.10 (0.86-1.79) 2.31 (1.98-4.15) 2.76 (2.08-3.63) 0.001a,b  
  C-peptide (ng/mL) 1.60 (1.42-2.23) 2.99 (2.05-3.51) 3.01 (2.64-3.14) 0.002a,b  
  HbA1c (%) 5.32 ± 0.31 5.45 ± 0.23 5.40 ± 0.28 0.474  
  Leptin (ng/mL) 9.30 (6.52-20.11) 46.03 (29.84-78.67) 42.24 (26.71-66.69) < 0.001a,b  
  Total adiponectin (μg/mL) 4.98 ± 1.02 4.14 ± 1.78 3.81 ± 1.39 0.071  
  HMW adiponectin (μg/mL) 2.86 ± 0.82 2.06 ± 1.17 1.74 ± 0.91 0.008b  
  SA 0.57 ± 0.1 0.48 ± 0.09 0.44 ± 0.07 < 0.001a,b  
  Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 7.49 ± 1.51 6.28 ± 0.96 6.60 ± 0.96 0.035a  
  LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.86 ± 1.50 3.73 ± 0.87 3.92 ± 1.96 0.039  
  HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.92 ± 0.49 1.73 ± 0.45 1.88 ± 0.28 0.524  
  Triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.53 ± 0.74 2.38 ± 0.57 2.76 ± 0.72 0.420  
B Infant Lean group Obese group Obese GDM group P-value 1 Adjusted p-value 2
  Offspring gender (male/female), n 8/7 8/5 13/3 0.275  
Umbilical cord plasma parameters
  Glucose (mmol/L) 4.46 ± 1.13 4.42 ± 1.03 4.60 ± 1.02 0.892 0.202
  Insulin (μU/mL) 1.72 (1.08-5.14) 1.73 (1.33-3.97) 5.29 (4.21-8.33) 0.023b,c 0.014b,c
  HOMA-IR-index 0.40 (0.22-1.23) 0.42 (0.23-0.74) 1.08 (0.81-1.52) 0.021b,c 0.009b,c
  Leptin (ng/mL) 5.88 (2.15-9.70) 7.57 (4.56-16.65) 6.84 (4.76-11.58) 0.455 0.114
  Total adiponectin (μg/mL) 20.68 ± 6.23 20.82 ± 8.56 22.03 ± 7.33 0.977 0.685
  HMW adiponectin (μg/mL) 14.61 ± 5.15 14.28 ± 7.02 14.75 ± 5.80 0.860 0.884
  SA 0.70 ± 0.06 0.67 ± 0.06 0.65 ± 0.08 0.292 0.348
  Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.71 (1.31-1.90) 1.53 (1.36-1.71) 1.55 (1.32-1.73) 0.718 0.886
  LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.54 (0.32-0.65) 0.52 (0.38-0.60) 0.47 (0.41-0.54) 0.905 0.271
  HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.72 (0.67-1.03) 0.62 (0.60-0.96) 0.72 (0.57-0.88) 0.691 0.724
  Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.35 (0.27-0.52) 0.35 (0.26-0.45) 0.40 (0.25-0.46) 0.959 0.847
Breastfeeding status at week-6 (month-4), n
  Exclusively breastfed 10 (8) 7 (6) 6 (4) 0.257 (0.304)  
  Formula and breast milk 0 (2) 3 (0) 4 (4)
  Formula only 5 (5) 3 (6) 4 (6)
  Introduction of solid food (months) 5.0 (5.0-6.0) 5.0 (4.0-6.0) 5.0 (4.0-6.0) 0.411  
  1. HbA1c: hemoglobin A1c; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test; SA: HMW-total adiponectin ratio.
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD; otherwise skewed variables are presented as median followed by interquartile range.
  3. 1One-way ANOVA with Sidak’s post hoc test or nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis-test with Dunn’s post hoc test.
  4. 2Statistical analyses for cord plasma parameters were performed by multiple linear regression models and p-values were adjusted for infant sex and pregnancy duration.
  5. aP-value < 0.05 obese vs. lean group; bp-value < 0.05 obese GDM vs. lean group; cp-value < 0.05 obese GDM vs. obese group.