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Table 2 Anthropometric infant data from birth to year-1

From: Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1

  Lean group Obese group Obese GDM group P-value1 Adjusted p-value2
Weight [g]      
  Birth 3,449 ± 332 [15] 3,651 ± 285 [13] 3,617 ± 333 [16] 0.201 0.169
  Week-6 4,701 ± 330 [15] 4,963 ± 635 [13] 5,285 ± 517 [12] 0.017b 0.170
  Month-4 6,468 ± 522 [15] 6,929 ± 829 [11] 7,066 ± 732 [13] 0.071 0.211
  Year-1 9,786 ± 915 [15] 10,356 ± 1273 [12] 10,392 ± 1212 [14] 0.286 0.549
Weight gain [g]      
  Δ Week-6 - birth 1,265 (1,095-1,480) [15] 1,480 (775–1,690) [13] 1,550 (1,361-1,892) [12] 0.017b 0.394
  Δ Month-4 - week-6 1,734 (1,390-2,100) [15] 2,070 (1,840-2,300) [11] 1,848 (1,460-2,100) [11] 0.112 0.042a
  Δ Year-1 - month-4 3,318 ± 760 [15] 3,228 ± 801 [11] 3,329 ± 666 [13] 0.936 0.937
  Δ Year-1 - birth 6,337 ± 996 [15] 6,665 ± 1,220 [12] 6,765 ± 1,102 [14] 0.554 0.722
Length [cm]      
  Birth 51.8 ± 1.5 [15] 52.5 ± 1.4 [13] 52.3 ± 1.5 [16] 0.299 0.264
  Week-6 55.6 ± 0.9 [15] 56.0 ± 1.8 [13] 56.4 ± 1.4 [12] 0.360 0.738
  Month-4 63.3 ± 1.2 [15] 64.4 ± 2.0 [11] 63.7 ± 1.4 [13] 0.226 0.177
  Year-1 76.5 ± 2.3 [15] 77.5 ± 2.6 [12] 76.7 ± 2.7 [14] 0.551 0.666
Ponderal index [g/cm 3 ]      
  Birth 6.65 ± 0.54 [15] 6.95 ± 0.48 [13] 6.81 ± 0.51 [16] 0.291 0.287
  Week-6 8.45 ± 0.55 [15] 8.86 ± 1.03 [13] 9.36 ± 0.75 [12] 0.018b 0.176
  Month-4 10.21 ± 0.81 [15] 10.74 ± 1.06 [11] 11.04 ± 0.97 [13] 0.073 0.272
  Year-1 12.80 ± 1.04 [15] 13.34 ± 1.38 [12] 13.52 ± 1.30 [14] 0.262 0.616
Head circumference [cm]      
  Birth 34.0 (34.0-35.5) [15] 35.0 (34.5-36.5) [13] 35.5(34.0-36.0) [16] 0.072 0.410
  Week-6 37.5 (37.0-38.8) [15] 38.3 (37.6-39.7) [13] 38.9 (37.7-40.0) [12] 0.023b 0.096
  Month-4 41.1 ± 1.2 [15] 42.1 ± 1.7 [11] 42.0 ± 1.3 [13] 0.132 0.184
  Year-1 45.6 ± 1.4 [15] 47.0 ± 1.6 [12] 47.1 ± 1.7 [14] 0.072 0.105
Waist circumference [cm]      
  Year-1 45.1 ± 2.4 [15] 45.6 ± 4.0 [12] 45.7 ± 3.0 [14] 0.859 0.897
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD; otherwise skewed variables are presented as median followed by interquartile range, numbers in brackets represent number of infants included in the analysis.
  2. 1One-way ANOVA with Sidak’s post hoc test or nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis-test with Dunn’s post hoc test.
  3. 2Statistical analyses were performed by multiple linear regression models. P-values for parameters at week-1 were adjusted for infant sex, pregnancy duration and age at investigation. P-values at week-6, month-4 and year-1 were adjusted for infant sex, pregnancy duration, age at investigation and corresponding breastfeeding.
  4. aP-value < 0.05 obese vs. lean group; bp-value < 0.05 obese GDM vs. lean group.