You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Infant adipose tissue growth assessed by skinfold thickness measurements and ultrasonography from week-1 to year-1

From: Effect of maternal obesity with and without gestational diabetes on offspring subcutaneous and preperitoneal adipose tissue development from birth up to year-1

  Lean group Obese group Obese GDM group P-value1 Adjusted p-value2
SFT [mm]      
  Week-1 18.9 ± 3.1 [15] 20.3 ± 2.6 [13] 21.6 ± 2.4 [16] 0.031a 0.031a
  Week-6 25.2 ± 3.7 [15] 26.1 ± 5.1 [13] 30.4 ± 3.4 [12] 0.007a,b 0.048a
  Month-4 30.7 ± 6.6 [15] 31.2 ± 4.3 [11] 33.6 ± 4.8 [13] 0.336 0.258
  Year-1 29.0 ± 4.3 [15] 30.3 ± 4.6 [12] 29.7 ± 4.8 [14] 0.749 0.536
Fat mass [g] 3      
  Week-1 583 ± 139 [15] 660 ± 114 [13] 694 ± 117 [16] 0.051 0.042a
  Week-6 1,008 ± 159 [15] 1,098 ± 285 [13] 1,307 ± 187 [12] 0.004a,b 0.048a
  Month-4 1,581 ± 318 [15] 1,728 ± 327 [11] 1,847 ± 328 [13] 0.108 0.184
  Year-1 2,260 ± 419 [15] 2,475 ± 536 [12] 2,444 ± 530 [14] 0.466 0.498
Trunk-total SFT ratio (%) 4      
  Week-1 47.4 ± 2.5 [15] 47.2 ± 3.3 [13] 48.1 ± 2.9 [16] 0.630 0.958
  Week-6 48.4 ± 3.2 [15] 49.4 ± 3.4 [13] 49.1 ± 2.4 [12] 0.648 0.528
  Month-4 49.0 ± 4.1 [15] 48.9 ± 2.4 [11] 49.6 ± 3.1 [13] 0.841 0.647
  Year-1 45.1 ± 2.6 [15] 44.9 ± 2.6 [12] 48.5 ± 3.3 [14] 0.002a,b 0.035a,b
SCA (mm 2 ) 5      
  Week-1 12.7 (9.5-15.4) [12] 16.7 (14.0-19.9) [12] 17.7 (16.8-19.4) [12] 0.020a 0.014a
  Week-6 24.0 ± 6.6 [15] 26.5 ± 10.7 [13] 34.6 ± 7.9 [12] 0.008a,b 0.058a
  Month-4 41.3 ± 12.8 [15] 42.9 ± 9.4 [11] 45.6 ± 12.7 [13] 0.644 0.458
  Year-1 24.6 (18.6-27.7) [15] 29.0 (26.8-36.2) [12] 34.2 (22.8-43.6) [14] 0.132 0.217
PPA (mm 2 ) 5      
  Week-1 5.6 (4.9-7.9) [12] 7.9 (6.3-9.3) [12] 10.0 (8.9-12.2) [12] 0.001a 0.001a,b
  Week-6 10.0 ± 2.7 [15] 11.4 ± 3.6 [13] 13.9 ± 2.9 [12] 0.009a 0.183
  Month-4 13.5 (9.7-14.1) [15] 16.9 (12.1-18.6) [11] 15.6 (11.5-18.0) [13] 0.221 0.525
  Year-1 17.5 ± 4.9 [15] 22.3 ± 7.0 [12] 20.8 ± 6.7 [14] 0.130 0.368
  1. PPA: preperitoneal adipose tissue; SCA: subcutaneous adipose tissue; SFT: sum of the 4 skinfold thickness measurements (biceps + triceps + subscapular + suprailiac).
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD; otherwise skewed variables are presented as median followed by interquartile range; numbers in brackets represent number of infants included in the analysis.
  3. 1One-way ANOVA with Sidak’s post hoc test or nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis-test with Dunn’s post hoc test.
  4. 2Statistical analyses were performed by multiple linear regression models. P-values for parameters at week-1 were adjusted for infant sex, pregnancy duration and age at investigation. P-values at week-6, month-4 and year-1 were adjusted for infant sex, pregnancy duration, age at investigation and corresponding breastfeeding status.
  5. aP-value < 0.05 obese GDM vs. lean group; bp-value < 0.05 obese GDM vs. obese group.
  6. 3Fat mass was estimated from the sum of 4 SFTs by using the equations of Weststrate and Deurenberg [22].
  7. 4Trunk-total SFT ratio (%) was evaluated by applying the equation (subscapular + suprailiac SFT)/(sum of 4 SFTs) × 100 of Westrate et al. [23].
  8. 5SCA and PPA were measured as areas of 1-cm length according to the method of Holzhauer et al. [18]. SCA indicates mean area from axial + sagittal plane.