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Table 1 Expansion of CS indications from AMDD tool to Fistula Care tool and final recoding

From: Assessing the quality of record keeping for cesarean deliveries: results from a multicenter retrospective record review in five low-income countries

CS indications, recoded for final analysis Fistula Care data collection tool AMDD CS record review tool
Maternal indications
Obstructed labor (including failed trial of labor, deformed pelvis) • Obstructed labor  
• Failed trial of labor
• Deformed pelvis
Uterine rupture • Uterine rupture  
Major antepartum hemorrhage & placenta previa (grade 3 or 4) • Major antepartum hemorrhage & placenta previa (grade 3 or 4) Placenta previa
Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) • Cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) CPD (listed with prolonged labor)
Failure to progress in labor, including prolonged labor • Failure to progress in labor Prolonged labor (listed with CPD)
• Prolonged labor
Failed induction • Failed induction Failed induction
Previous CS • Previous CS Previous scar
• Uterine scar from other previous surgery
Genitourinary fistula or third-degree tear repair • Vesico-vaginal fistula postrepair Vesico-vaginal fistula
• Vesico-vaginal fistula
Antepartum hemorrhage (excluding those for absolute indications and including abruptio placentae) • Antepartum hemorrhage (excluding those for absolute indications and including abruptio placentae) Placenta abruptio
Maternal medical diseases (e.g., sickle cell anemia, HIV) • Maternal medical disease (e.g., sickle cell anemia, HIV)  
Severe preeclampsia or eclampsia • Eclampsia/severe preeclampsia Eclampsia/severe preeclampsia
Psychosocial indications (including maternal request) • Psychosocial/maternal/family request Maternal distress
Precious pregnancy • Precious baby  
Fetal Indications
Fetal compromise (including fetal distress; cord prolapse/presentation; and severe intrauterine growth retardation) • Fetal distress Fetal distress
• Cord prolapse/presentation Cord prolapse
• Severe intrauterine retardation
Breech presentation • Breech presentation Breech with footling/ malpresentation
Multiple gestation • Multiple gestation Multiple gestation
Malpresentation (including transverse, oblique, and brow) • Malpresentation (including transverse, oblique, and brow) Breech with footling/ malpresentation
Other/not enough information • Other^ Other
  1. ^Other indications include those found in patient records which were not part of the pre-coded options but were recoded to indications on our final list (e.g. big baby to obstructed labor. Data that did not include enough information to enable a clear determination about the indication were coded as “other/not enough information”.