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Table 5 Percentage distribution of primary CS indication, by study site

From: Assessing the quality of record keeping for cesarean deliveries: results from a multicenter retrospective record review in five low-income countries

Primary indication Bangladesh Guinea A Guinea B Mali Niger A Niger B Niger C Uganda A Uganda B
  n = 350 n = 277 n = 376 n = 269 n = 299 n = 349 n = 324 n = 348 n = 349
Maternal indications 41.5 89.5 87.0 72.4 69.1 76.7 70.7 73.3 78.2
  Obstructed labor (including failed trial of labor, deformed pelvis) 2.0 59.2 52.7 16.4 10.4 16.0 9.3 14.9 30.9
  Failure to progress/prolonged labor 5.1 2.5 0.3 8.6 9.0 5.7 7.4 19.5 16.3
  Uterine rupture 0.3 7.2 11.4 10.0 20.7 9.5 14.2 0.3 0.3
  Previous CS 11.4 0.7 11.4 3.0 3.7 5.2 2.5 18.7 10.9
  Severe preeclampsia or eclampsia 11.1 0.0 0.3 13.4 7.4 17.2 14.2 1.7 2.0
  Cephalopelvic disproportion 5.4 6.1 4.8 11.2 6.7 4.6 5.2 11.5 5.7
  Antepartum hemorrhage and grade 3 or 4 placenta previa 1.4 4.7 4.0 3.7 5.4 9.7 9.6 2.3 4.6
  Antepartum hemorrhage, excluding absolute indications, including abruptio placentae 1.4 8.7 0.3 5.2 0.7 6.9 5.9 2.6 0.0
  Precious pregnancy* 2.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 2.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 2.3
  Genitourinary fistula or third-degree tear repair 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.4 2.0 0.3 1.2 0.0 2.0
  Maternal medical disease^ 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.6 1.1 1.4
  Failed induction 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 1.4
  Psychosocial, including maternal request 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3
Fetal indications 24.9 9.4 12.5 22.7 25.4 20.1 27.2 25.8 19.8
  Fetal compromise (fetal distress, including cord prolapse/presentation, severe intrauterine growth retardation) 18.3 5.1 7.2 12.3 10.0 6.0 16.4 14.9 7.2
  Malpresentation (including transverse, oblique, brow) 2.0 4.3 4.8 4.8 12.4 10.9 9.6 5.5 10.6
  Breech presentation 4.6 0.0 0.5 5.6 3.0 2.3 0.9 3.7 1.7
  Multiple gestation 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.3 1.7 0.3
Other/not enough information 33.1 1.1 0.5 4.8 5.4 2.9 2.2 0.9 2.0
No indication recorded 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0
  1. *Precious pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy coming after a series of pregnancy losses, such as miscarriages or still births.
  2. ^Pre-existing conditions, such as cardiac disease or co-morbidities, such as HIV. While preexisting hypertension predisposes to preeclampsia/toxemia and eclampsia, these conditions are excluded from the category, because they are pregnancy-specific.