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Table 2 Suboptimal factors associated with maternal death by cause of death in Sweden 1988–2010

From: Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the ‘migration three delays’ model

Causes of death Total Foreign-born Swedish-born
  n = 73 Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor) n = 25 Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor) n = 48 Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor)
Direct 37 28 (20 + 8) 16 14 (11 + 3) 21 14 (9 + 5)
 AFE1 7 5 (0 + 5) 2 2 (0 + 2) 5 3 (0 + 3)
 Genital sepsis 5 4 (3 + 1) 2 1 (1 + 0) 3 3 (2 + 1)
 VTE2 5 3 (3 + 0) 2 1 (1 + 0) 3 2 (2 + 0)
 Pre-eclampsia3 4 4 (3 + 1) 2 2 (1 + 1) 2 2 (2 + 0)
 Surgery4 4 4 (4 + 0) 3 3 (3 + 0) 1 1 (1 + 0)
 Ectopic pregnancy 3 2 (1 + 1) 0 0   3 2 (1 + 1)
 Haemorrhage5 2 2 (2 + 0) 2 2 (2 + 0) 0 0  
 Other direct6 7 4 (4 + 0) 3 3 (3 + 0) 4 1 (1 + 0)
Indirect 35 23 (16 + 7) 9 8 (4 + 4) 26 15 (12 + 3)
 Cardiovascular7 21 15 (8 + 7) 5 5 (1 + 4) 16 10 (7 + 3)
 Non-genital sepsis 6 6 (6 + 0) 3 3 (3 + 0) 3 3 (3 + 0)
 CNS8 6 0   1 0   5 0  
 Other indirect9 2 2 (2 + 0) 0 0   2 2 (2 + 0)
Unclear 10 1 0   0 0   1 0  
  1. 1Amniotic fluid embolism.
  2. 2Venous thromboembolism.
  3. 3Pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome.
  4. 4Complication of caesarean section (n = 2), complication of anaesthesia (n = 2).
  5. 5Cervix rupture (n = 1), postpartum haemorrhage (n = 1).
  6. 6Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (n = 1), peripartum cardiomyopathy (n = 2), anaemia (n = 1), unclear cause of death assessed as direct by the audit group (n = 3).
  7. 7Myocarditis (n = 3), myocardial infarction (n = 4), arrthymia/SADS (sudden arrhythmic death syndrome) (n = 3), aortic aneurysm (n = 8), rupture of splenic artery (n = 1), rheumatic valve disease (n = 1), congenital heart disease (n = 1).
  8. 8Central nervous system; intracranial haemorrhage (n = 5), epilepsy (n = 1).
  9. 9Pulmonary oedema (n = 1), ileus (n = 1).
  10. 10Assessed as a maternal death, however it is unclear if it was direct or indirect.