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Table 3 Suboptimal factors associated with maternal death by phase of delay in Sweden 1988–2010. Fisher’s exact test (p < 0.05)

From: Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the ‘migration three delays’ model

Suboptimal factor Total (N = 73) Foreign-born (N = 25) Swedish-born (N = 48)  
  Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor)1 Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor)1 Cases with suboptimal factors (major + minor)1 p value (Fisher’s exact test)
Total 51 (36 + 15) 22 (15 + 7) 29 (21 + 8) 0.01
Phase 1: Care-seeking 18 (6 + 12) 11 (1 + 10) 7 (5 + 2) 0.01
 Non-compliance 10 (3 + 7) 6 (1 + 5) 4 (2 + 2) 0.08 ns
 Late-/non-booking 5 (0 + 5) 5 (0 + 5) 0   
 Unhealthy lifestyle (substance abuse) 3 (3 + 0) 0   3 (3 + 0)  
Phase 2: Accessibility of services 14 (3 + 11) 14 (3 + 11) 0   
 Limited language congruence 13 (3 + 10) 13 (3 + 10) 0   
 Incomplete legal status2 2 (0 + 2) 2 (0 + 2) 0   
 Delayed transport 1 (0 + 1) 1 (0 + 1) 0   
Phase 3: Quality of medical care 50 (34 + 16) 21 (15 + 6) 29 (19 + 10) 0.03
 Inadequate care 49 (31 + 18) 21 (14 + 7) 28 (17 + 11) 0.02
 Delay in consultation or referral3 24 (16 + 8) 10 (8 + 2) 14 (8 + 6) 0.2 ns
 Appropriate care, but too late 16 (11 + 5) 5 (4 + 1) 11 (7 + 4) 0.5 ns
 Miscommunication between providers 9 (5 + 4) 5 (3 + 2) 4 (2 + 2) 0.1 ns
 Limited use/priority of resources4 5 (1 + 4) 2 (1 + 1) 3 (0 + 3) 0.6 ns
  1. 1The care on each level was assessed as major suboptimal if there was at least one major suboptimal factor, and minor if there were no major but at least one minor suboptimal factor. Note that the specified suboptimal factors within one level could add up to more than the total, because one woman could have several suboptimal factors within the same level, i.e. the numbers within each level could be more than by level.
  2. 2Recently arrived refugee (n = 1); lived in Sweden instead of Denmark due to Danish immigration law (n = 1).
  3. 3Referral from primary care to hospital, or between departments within a hospital.
  4. 4Lack of beds in intensive care unit (n = 4); delayed surgical procedure due to prioritisation of another patient (n = 1).