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Table 3 Chemical element content in pemba and kichuguu eaten by pregnant women

From: Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania

  Location Sample Total chemical element in mg/kg
  Sourced Identity As Cd Cr Cu Fe Hg Mn Ni Pb Zn
Pemba Kigoma KIG 01 0.290 <0.001 114 58.6 85607 <0.001 289 59.0 <0.01 101
  KIG 02 0.490 <0.001 146 62.4 88382 <0.001 288 60.7 <0.01 104
  KIG 03 0.310 <0.001 111 63.1 89756 <0.001 283 63.4 <0.01 78.1
  KIG 04 0.270 <0.001 119 68.0 87269 <0.001 284 63.9 <0.01 80.4
  Mean 0.340 - 123 63.0 87754 - 286 61.8 - 90.9
  SD 0.101 - 16.0 3.9 1756 - 2.9 2.3 - 13.5
Musoma MSG 01 0.200 <0.001 65.0 27.5 34643 <0.001 1290 4.0 1.9 20.7
  MSG 02 0.190 <0.001 68.5 27.9 34534 <0.001 1312 4.7 2.8 23.1
  MSG 03 0.460 <0.001 98.3 58.9 34663 <0.001 1436 42.2 <0.01 68.3
  MSG 04 0.390 <0.001 94.7 58.9 35491 <0.001 1400 42.4 <0.01 28.1
   Mean 0.310 - 81.6 43.3 34833 - 1360 23.3 2.4 35.1
   SD 0.136 - 17.3 18.0 442 - 69.7 21.9 0.636 22.4
Kichuguu Katolo KTG 01 4.8 0.025 108 61.5 35878 0.039 861 51.3 7.4 45.5
  KTG 02 4.6 <0.001 98.5 62.3 57916 0.065 762 53.8 6.4 38.5
Rwamagasa RWG 01 14.8 0.092 97.3 79.7 55983 0.056 671 45.4 2.9 101
  RWG 02 19.7 0.220 287 169 68922 0.075 1325 128 3.9 112
Geita GTG 01 0.790 <0.001 103 46.4 33884 0.020 571 60.8 1.5 24.4
  GTG 02 3.0 0.044 41.5 67.4 43929 0.037 828 39.4 6.0 27.8
Kasamwa KSG 01 3.1 0.035 133 53.8 45600 0.039 1303 65.9 6.2 28.7
  KSG 02 4.5 0.035 68.8 58.7 51649 0.032 1243 43.4 5.8 30.7
Nyankumbu NYG 01 3.2 0.016 132 50.0 42919 0.015 1343 69.8 5.8 25.6
  NYG 02 5.3 <0.001 108 52.9 38765 0.041 529 55.9 7.0 26.8
Bukoli BKG 01 3.3 0.016 73.0 63.4 46401 0.022 761 83.1 9.4 41.8
  BKG 02 3.6 <0.001 99.9 51.1 45912 0.052 602 56.6 8.3 45.3
Chikobe CHG 01 5.0 <0.001 246 69.9 72204 0.072 2515 101 11.3 34.5
  CKG 02 5.9 0.016 216 61.4 56838 0.074 1251 113 8.7 29.2
   Mean 5.8 0.055 129 67.7 49771 0.046 1040 69.1 6.5 43.7
   SD 5.1 0.066 70.7 30.5 11501 0.020 522 27.3 2.6 27.6
  1. As=arsenic; Cd=cadmium; Cr=chromium; Cu=copper; Fe=iron; Hg=mercury; Mn=manganese; Ni=nickel; Pb=lead; Zn=zinc.