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Table 4 Estimated daily intake and daily dose of chemical elements of the soil eaten by pregnant women

From: Geophagy practices and the content of chemical elements in the soil eaten by pregnant women in artisanal and small scale gold mining communities in Tanzania

Chemical content Kigoma Pemba Musoma Pemba Kichuguu soil MRLs* (mg/kg/day)
  Mean conc. ( mg/kg) Daily intake (mg/day) Daily dose (mg/kg/day) Mean conc. (mg/kg) Daily intake (mg/day) Daily dose (mg/kg/day) Mean conc. ( mg/kg) Daily intake (mg/day) Daily dose (mg/kg/day)  
As 0.340 0.021 0.0003 0.310 0.019 0.0002 5.8 0.36 0.0045 0.0003
Cd BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.036 0.002 0.00003 0.0005
Cr 122 7.6 0.095 81.6 5.1 0.064 129 8.1 0.100 0.0009a
Cu 63.0 3.9 0.049 43.3 2.7 0.034 67.7 4.2 0.053 0.010
Fe 87754 5484 68.6 34833 2177 27.2 49771 3111 38.9 Xx
Hg BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL 0.046 0.003 0.00004 0.0003b
Mn 286 17.9 0.220 1360 85.0 1.1 1040 65.0 0.810 0.160c
Ni 61.8 3.9 0.048 23.3 1.4 0.018 69.1 4.3 0.054 xx
Pb BDL BDL BDL 2.4 0.150 0.0019 6.5 0.410 0.005 xx
Zn 90.9 5.7 0.071 35.1 2.2 0.027 43.7 2.7 0.034 0.300
  1. Mean body weight of 80 kg for an adult was used to estimate Daily Dose in women, mg/kg/day[46].
  2. As=arsenic; Cd=cadmium; Cr=chromium; Cu=copper; Fe=iron; Hg=mercury; Mn=manganese; Ni=nickel; Pb=lead; Zn=zinc.
  3. *Oral Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) in mg/kg/day for chronic exposure to chemical element as established by ATSDR [45].
  4. BDL refers to concentration below the method detection limit of the particular mineral element.
  5. aOral MRLs for chromium hexavalent.
  6. bOral MRLs for chronic toxicity for methyl mercury.
  7. cInterim guidance value for manganese (mg/kg/day).
  8. xxNo oral MRLs have been derived for the specific chemical element.