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Table 2 Maternal, obstetric and infant characteristics by country

From: Why 'down under' is a cut above: a comparison of rates of and reasons for caesarean section in England and Australia

  England (N = 5,250) Queensland (N = 3,467) p
N % N %
Maternal Characteristics      
Maternal Age      .879
34 years or younger 3,863 74.3 2,568 74.4  
35 years or older 1,337 25.7 882 25.6  
Missing 50   17   
Secondary Education      < .001
Completed 3,972 76.8 3,107 90.3  
Not completed 1,201 23.2 334 9.7  
Missing 77   26   
Maternal Country of Birth      .444
Same as index birth 3,965 79.0 2,755 79.7  
Different from index birth 1,052 21.0 701 20.3  
Missing 233   11   
Obstetric Characteristics      
Parity      < .001
Primiparous 2,564 49.8 1,577 45.5  
Multiparous – No previous CS 1,999 38.8 1,266 36.5  
Multiparous – Previous CS 590 11.4 623 18.0  
Missing 97   1   
Plurality      < .001
Single 5,157 98.4 3,345 96.5  
Multiple 86 1.6 122 3.5  
Missing 7   -   
Gestational Diabetes      < .001
Yes 129 2.5 252 7.3  
No 5,101 97.5 3,205 92.7  
Missing -   -   
Placental Complications      .010
Yes 309 5.9 252 7.3  
No 4,921 94.1 3,205 92.7  
Missing -   -   
Hypertension/Pre-eclampsia      .012
Yes 402 7.7 318 9.2  
No 4,828 92.3 3,139 90.8  
Missing -   -   
Other Risk Factors §      < .001
Yes 931 17.8 872 25.3  
No 4,299 82.2 2,571 74.7  
Missing -   -   
Infant Characteristics      
Gestational Age      < .001
Less than 37 weeks 334 6.4 291 8.6  
37 weeks or more 4,852 93.6 3,096 91.4  
Missing 64   80   
Birthweight      .189
Less than 2500 g 273 5.4 195 5.8  
2500 – 3999 g 4,105 81.5 2,680 80.0  
4000 g or more 656 13.0 477 14.2  
Missing 216   115   
  1. Note. §Risk factors not already accounted for, such as fetal presentation, pre-labour rupture of membranes, threatened pre-term labour, intrauterine growth restriction, suspected fetal macrosomia, oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios, and complications in previous pregnancies or births.