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Table 1 Select perioperative procedures and practices, by site (all women in the study, unless otherwise noted)

From: Clinical procedures and practices used in the perioperative treatment of female genital fistula during a prospective cohort study

  Site N (%)
Characteristic Total (n = 1354) BG 1 (n = 85) BG 2 (n = 50) BG 3 (n = 5) GU (n = 251) NI 1 (n = 74) NI 2 (n = 97) NG 1 (n = 59) NG 2 (n = 210) NG 3 (n = 153) UG 1 (n = 165) UG 2 (n = 205)
Preoperative procedures
Drinking regimen prescribed (Urinary fistula only; n = 1314) 1054 (80.2) 33 (39.3) 48 (100.0) 0 (00.0) 245 (99.6) 67 (100.0) 0 (00.0) 29 (51.8) 138 (67.0) 151 (100.0) 156 (98.1) 187 (92.1)
Median liters of fluid/day prescribed (IQR) (Urinary fistula only) n = 1059) 5 (4–8) 5 (5–5) 4 (4–4) N/A 4 (3–5) 6 (6–6) N/A 8 (6–8) 10 (7–10) 8 (8–8) 3 (3–3) 5 (4–5)
Prophylactic antibiotics provided (n = 1340) 552 (41.2) 48 (57.1) 50 (100.0) 3 (60.0) 251 (100.0) 2 (2.9) 48 (51.6) 4 (7.0) 9 (4.3) 34 (22.37) 28 (17.0) 75 (36.6)
Intraoperative procedures
Vaginal route (n = 1341) 1278 (95.3) 72 (85.7) 48 (96.0) 5 (100.0) 243 (96.8) 69 (100.0) 92 (98.9) 55 (96.5) 209 (99.5) 153 (100.0) 138 (83.6) 194 (95.1)
Relaxing incision(s) used (n = 1261) 16 (1.3) 0 (00.0) 2 (4.3) 1 (20.0) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 3 (5.5) 6 (3.0) 1 (0.7) 1 (00.7) 3 (1.6)
Bladder suture in single layer bladder (Urinary fistula only; n = 1271) 820 (64.5) 65 (80.3) 28 (59.6) 5 (100.0) 30 (12.2) 65 (97.0) 26 (32.9) 49 (89.1) 169 (84.1) 92 (61.3) 118 (80.8) 173 (89.2)
Bladder suture in double layers (Urinary fistula only; n = 1265) 428 (33.8) 15 (19.0) 19 (40.4) 0 (00.0) 215 (87.4) 1 (1.5) 53 (66.3) 3 (5.6) 17 (8.5) 58 (38.7) 24 (16.6) 23 (11.9)
Vaginal wall suture in single layer (Urinary fistula only; n = 1269) 1076 (84.8) 73 (90.1) 47 (100.0) 5 (100.0) 244 (99.2) 66 (98.5) 29 (36.7) 44 (80.0) 174 (87.4) 132 (88.0) 120 (82.2) 142 (73.2)
Vaginal wall suture in double layers (Urinary fistula only; n = 1261) 14 (1.1) 1 (1.3) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 1 (0.4) 0 (00.0) 2 (2.6) 1 (1.9) 1 (0.5) 0 (00.0) 3 (2.1) 5 (2.6)
Flaps and grafts used (only Martius) (Urinary fistula only; n = 1263) 43 (3.4) 4 (5.1) 6 (12.8) 0 (00.0) 17 (6.9) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 15 (7.5) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 1 (0.5)
Prophylactic antibiotics provided (n = 1340) 843 (62.9) 59 (69.4) 5 (10.0) 5 (100.0) 251 (100.0) 66 (95.7) 87 (94.6) 0 (0.00) 4 (1.9) 14 (9.2) 160 (97.0) 192 (94.1)
Postoperative procedures
Median duration bed-rest prescribed (n = 1331) 1 (1–3) 2 (2–2) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–8) 5 (3–7) 1 (1–1) 3 (3–13) 1 (1–1) 1 (0–1) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–1) 3 (2–3)
Drinking regimen prescribed (Urinary fistula only; n = 1304) 1148 (88.0) 60 (74.1) 48 (100.0) 0 (00. 0) 246 (100.0) 67 (100. 0) 0 (00.0) 7 (13.0) 208 (100.0) 150 (100.0) 160 (100.0) 202 (100.0)
Median liters of fluid/day prescribed (Urinary fistula only n = 1138) 5 (4–8) 4 (3–5) 4 (4–4) N/A 3 (3–3) 10 (10–10) N/A 8 (6–10) 10 (10–10) 8 (8–8) 6 (6–6) 5 (5–5)
Open drainage system (Urinary fistula only; n = 1310) 899 (68.6) 0 (00.0) 0 (00.0) 1 (20.0) 95 (38.6) 67 (100.0) 0 (00.0) 41 (74.5) 203 (100. 0) 151 (100. 0) 147 (91.9) 194 (95.6)
Median days of catheterization (IQR) (Urinary fistula only; n = 1294) 21.0 (14–27) 21.0 (17–21) 14.0 (14–20) 14.0 (14–14) 15.0 (14–21) 28.0 (28–28) 14.0 (13–15) 29.0 (28–34) 23.0 (21–28) 28.0 (28–28) 14.0 (14–21) 15.0 (14–16)
Bladder training performed (Urinary fistula only; n = 1305) 670 (51.3) 23 (28.4) 7 (14.6) 1 (20.0) 79 (32.1) 44 (65.7) 0 (00.0) 28 (51.9) 13 (6.3) 121 (80.1) 159 (100.0) 195 (96.1)
Pelvic floor exercises performed (Urinary fistula only; n = 1308) 1118 (85.5) 62 (73.8) 12 (25.5) 5 (100.0) 226 (91.9) 48 (72.7) 0 (00.0) 53 (96.4) 202 (97.1) 150 (100.0) 158 (98.8) 202 (100.0)
Prophylactic antibiotics provided (n = 1330) 1150 (86.5) 77 (93.9) 5 (10.0) 2 (40.0) 251 (100.0) 66 (97.1) 87 (100.0) 10 (17.86) 210 (100.0) 153 (100.0) 165 (100.0) 124 (61.1)
  1. BG = Bangladesh, GU = Guinea, NI = Niger, NG = Nigeria, UG = Uganda.
  2. N/A = Not applicable.