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Table 2 Maternal and fetal health-related covariates in non-immigrants and in immigrants, by the length of residence, Norway 1990-2009

From: Preterm subtypes by immigrants’ length of residence in Norway: a population-based study

Non-immigrants Immigrants Immigrants by the length of residence (years)
Births (%) 868 832 (95.5%) 40 709 (4.5%) 20 074 (49.3%) 11 077 (27.2%) 4926 (12.1%) 4632 (11.4%)  
  0-4 5-9 10-14 ≥15  
  % % % % % % Pa
Term gestational days, mean (SD)b 282 (9.0) 280 (9.4) 280 (9.4) 280 (9.3) 279 (9.1) 278 (9.0) <0.001
Gestational diabetes 0.7 2.6* 1.7 3.1 3.3 4.3 <0.001
Pregest. diabetes 0.5 1.1* 0.6 1.2 1.9 2.2 <0.001
Hypertensive disorders 5.2 3.6* 3.3 3.5 4.5 4.2 <0.001
Abruptio placentae 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.829
Placenta previa 0.2 0.3* 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.235
SGAc 4.2 9.2* 9.7 8.1 8.0 10.3 <0.001
LGAd 6.3 3.0* 2.5 3.5 4.2 2.8 <0.001
Major birth defects 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.6 0.714
Smokinge        <0.001
 Yes 18.9 1.6* 1.2 1.2 2.4 3.1  
 No 61.6 67.0 68.5 66.2 65.9 63.9  
 Not disclosed 19.5 31.4 30.3 32.6 31.7 33.0  
  1. *Different from non-immigrants (χ2 test with P < 0.05). aAssociated to the length of residence, (χ2 test with P < 0.05). bTerm gestational days with standard deviation was calculated for term infants with spontaneous labor onset. cSGA, small-for-gestational age infant, 5th percentile. dLGA, large-for-gestational age infant, 95th percentile. eSmoking was available from 1999 onwards.