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Table 2 Characteristics according to quartile of seaweed consumption in 1745 pregnant women

From: Seaweed consumption and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

  Quartile     
Variable 1 (Lowest) (n = 436) 2 (n = 436) 3 (n = 436) 4 (Highest) (n = 437) P for trenda
Age, years, mean 30.8 31.1 31.6 31.3 0.04
Gestation, weeks, mean 18.5 18.4 18.5 18.7 0.67
Region of residence, %      0.31
 Fukuoka Prefecture 56.4 59.2 54.1 52.9  
 Other than Fukuoka Prefecture in Kyushu 34.6 30.7 36.0 34.3  
 Okinawa Prefecture 8.9 10.1 9.9 12.8  
Number of children, %      0.77
 0 39.2 42.0 37.4 42.6  
 1 39.2 39.0 44.7 35.2  
 ≥ 2 21.6 19.0 17.9 22.2  
Nuclear family structure, % 85.8 83.9 85.8 82.4 0.28
History of depression, % 5.5 4.8 4.4 4.6 0.48
Family history of depression, % 10.3 11.5 8.7 9.6 0.45
Having ever smoked,% 37.2 36.0 27.1 28.8 0.0007
Ever experiencing secondhand smoke exposure at home, % 78.2 76.6 72.5 74.1 0.08
Ever experiencing secondhand smoke exposure at work, % 64.9 64.5 62.2 62.0 0.29
Job typeb, %      0.03
 Unemployed 38.1 41.7 40.8 41.0  
 Professional or technical 21.1 23.6 28.0 27.0  
 Clerical or related occupation 22.7 17.0 17.9 17.6  
 Sales 6.0 4.6 5.1 3.4  
 Service 6.7 7.6 5.5 6.6  
 Production 3.9 3.9 1.6 2.3  
 Othersc 1.6 1.6 1.2 2.1  
Household income, yen/year, %      0.11
 < 4,000,000 41.3 35.6 32.3 35.7  
 4,000,000 − 5,999,999 33.3 35.8 34.9 37.8  
 ≥ 6,000,000 25.5 28.7 32.8 26.5  
Education, years, %      0.10
 < 13 28.0 23.9 23.2 23.1  
 13 − 14 31.9 32.3 36.7 31.4  
 ≥ 15 40.1 43.8 40.1 45.5  
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean 21.7 21.4 21.4 21.4 0.11
Fish, g, meand 40.3 45.7 49.2 51.8 < 0.0001
Yogurt, g, meand 32.4 32.4 36.4 38.1 0.01
  1. aFor continuous variables, a linear trend test was used; for categorical variables, a Mantel-Haenszel χ2-test was used.
  2. bEmployment status in the year when the first questionnaire was conducted or in the previous year.
  3. cManagement; protection services; farming, fishing, or forestry; transportation or communications; or construction.
  4. dFood intake was adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method.