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Table 3 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depressive symptoms during pregnancy by quartiles of seaweed consumption in 1745 pregnant women

From: Seaweed consumption and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

  Quartile     
  1 (Lowest) (n = 436) 2 (n = 436) 3 (n = 436) 4 (Highest) (n = 437) P for trend
Intake, g/daya 2.4 5.6 12.6 28.6  
Depressive symptoms, %b 24.8 18.8 17.0 16.5  
Crude OR (95% CI) 1.00 0.70 (0.51 − 0.97) 0.62 (0.45 − 0.86) 0.60 (0.43 − 0.83) 0.002
Adjusted OR (95% CI)c 1.00 0.72 (0.51 − 1.004) 0.71 (0.50 − 1.01) 0.68 (0.47 − 0.96) 0.03
  1. aValues for consumption are medians for adjusted energy intake using the residual method for each quartile.
  2. bPrevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for each quartile.
  3. cAdjustment for age; gestation; region of residence; number of children; family structure; history of depression; family history of depression; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; employment; household income; education; body mass index; and intake of fish and yogurt.