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Table 3 Basic characteristics of women by number of IFA supplements consumed during the most recent pregnancy within 5 years prior to the survey in 14 surveyed districts in Pakistan (n = 6,266)

From: Factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron and folic acid supplements among Pakistani women: a cross sectional household survey

Variables Number of IFA supplements consumed p
None Less than 60 60 to 89 90 and above Missing
n % n % n % n % n %
District            0.0001
Jhelum 102 42.5 56 23.4 22 9.3 55 22.9 4 1.9  
Charsadda 165 49.8 50 15.1 36 10.8 79 23.9 1 0.3  
Sukkur 188 53.9 65 18.6 22 6.4 69 19.9 4 1.3  
Swabi 171 54.7 37 11.7 24 7.8 80 25.8 0 0.0  
Sanghar 292 55.9 84 16.1 42 8.1 101 19.4 3 0.5  
Thatta 214 56.1 80 20.9 31 8.1 48 12.6 9 2.4  
Mansehra 226 59.5 37 9.6 28 7.4 88 23.2 1 0.3  
Mardan 292 59.5 44 8.9 52 10.7 103 21.0 0 0.0  
Larkana 382 61.8 110 17.7 38 6.1 85 13.8 4 0.6  
Dadu 360 62.9 49 8.6 39 6.8 114 20.0 10 1.8  
Ghotki 246 66.5 56 15.2 23 6.1 41 11.0 4 1.2  
Bahawalpur 457 68.4 63 9.5 44 6.6 97 14.6 6 0.9  
Rajanpur 332 72.5 40 8.8 23 5.0 57 12.4 7 1.4  
Dera Ghazi Khan 440 76.9 62 10.9 24 4.1 39 6.7 7 1.3  
Place of residence           0.0001
Urban 595 50.5 177 15.1 104 8.8 280 23.8 22 1.9
Rural 3,272 64.3 655 12.9 344 6.8 777 15.3 40 0.8
Lady health worker program area          0.0001
Yes 2,670 58.8 624 13.8 338 7.4 856 18.9 50 1.1  
No 1,197 69.3 208 12.1 111 6.4 201 11.6 11 0.7  
Age of respondents           0.0001
15 to 24 years 849 58.1 239 16.3 112 7.7 252 17.3 9 0.60  
25 to 34 years 1,996 60.6 432 13.1 241 7.3 587 17.8 37 1.1  
34 to 44 years 923 66.3 154 11.0 93 6.7 207 14.9 15 1.1  
45 years and more 98 81.4 8 6.4 3 2.3 11 9 1 0.9  
Educational status of respondents          0.0001
Above secondary 101 28.6 45 12.8 49 13.9 150 42.4 8 2.4  
At least some secondary school 324 40.6 130 16.3 83 10.4 245 30.7 16 2  
At least some primary school 486 53.4 145 15.9 68 7.5 197 21.6 15 1.6  
No education 2,956 70.3 512 12.2 248 5.9 465 11.1 23 0.5  
Working status of respondents          0.0001
Not working 2,516 58.2 608 14 333 7.7 821 19 49 1.1  
Working 1,345 69.7 223 11.6 114 5.9 236 12.2 13 0.7  
Missing 6 59.6 2 18.6 2 21.8 0 0 0 0  
Educational status of respondents’ husband         0.0001
Above secondary 454 41.3 157 14.3 123 11.2 343 31.3 21 1.9  
At least some secondary school 1,050 57.2 262 14.3 144 7.9 359 19.6 19 1  
At least some primary school 647 65.4 138 13.9 69 6.9 126 12.8 9 0.9  
No education 1,684 73.5 267 11.7 110 4.8 218 9.5 12 0.5  
Missing 32 59.5 9 16.2 3 5.7 10 18.6 0 0  
Household wealth index          0.0001
Highest 542 43.8 178 14.3 137 11 355 28.7 27 2.2  
Medium high 865 54.2 241 15.1 120 7.5 360 22.5 11 0.7  
Medium low 1,172 68.6 219 12.8 103 6 207 12.1 8 0.5  
Lowest 1,287 74.7 195 11.3 89 5.2 136 7.9 16 0.9  
Outcome of last live birth within 5 years preceding the survey       0.092
Singleton 3,814 61.7 827 13.4 444 7.2 1,033 16.7 61 0.99  
Multiple 52 60.4 5 6.1 4 5.1 24 27.4 1 1.04  
Duration since last birth within 5 years preceding the survey       0.0003
Within 1 year 1,176 58.4 313 15.6 163 8.1 354 17.6 8 0.4  
1 to 2 years 1,833 62.1 383 13 204 6.9 498 16.9 35 1.2  
3 and more years 858 66 136 10.5 82 6.3 205 15.8 19 1.5  
Number of live births within 5 years preceding the survey        0.038
One 1,702 62 320 11.7 207 7.55 488 17.8 28.3 1  
Two 1,570 60.9 359 13.9 187 7.23 438 17 25.1 1  
Three and more 595 63.1 154 16.3 55 5.82 131 13.9 8.4 0.9  
Antenatal services by type of providers         0.0001
Health professionals 1,739 44.2 753 19.2 401 10.2 982 25 56 1.4  
Untrained providers 62 56.7 19 17.7 12 11 14 13 2 1.6  
No services 1,942 92.7 59 2.8 32 1.5 58 2.8 3 0.1  
Missing 124 94.1 1 0.8 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 0.8  
  1. Chi-square for trend was used to obtained p-values for each variable.