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Table 4 Risk factors for non-use of iron/folic acid (IFA) supplements during pregnancy in women with the most recent live births within 5 years prior to the surveyed in 14 surveyed districts in Pakistan, findings of univariate and multivariate logistic regression

From: Factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron and folic acid supplements among Pakistani women: a cross sectional household survey

Variable Women who did not use iron supplements Unadjusted Adjusted
n % OR1 95% CI2 p OR1 95% CI2 p
District           
Jhelum 102 42.5 1.00     1.00    
Charsadda 165 49.8 1.34 0.9 1.99 0.143 0.38 0.23 0.62 <0.0001
Sukkur 188 53.9 1.58 1.02 2.43 0.038 0.77 0.48 1.21 0.252
Swabi 171 54.7 1.63 1.02 2.62 0.043 0.58 0.35 0.95 0.029
Sanghar 292 55.9 1.71 1.18 2.49 0.005 0.47 0.3 0.74 0.001
Thatta 214 56.1 1.72 1.16 2.56 0.007 0.58 0.38 0.91 0.016
Mansehra 226 59.5 1.98 1.31 3.01 0.001 1.19 0.78 1.81 0.431
Mardan 292 59.5 1.98 1.31 2.99 0.001 0.8 0.51 1.25 0.328
Larkana 382 61.8 2.18 1.48 3.22 0.0001 0.94 0.6 1.47 0.792
Dadu 360 62.9 2.29 1.52 3.45 0.0001 0.94 0.61 1.46 0.792
Ghotki 246 66.5 2.68 1.86 3.88 0.0001 1.09 0.71 1.67 0.704
Bahawalpur 457 68.4 2.92 1.92 4.43 0.0001 1.49 0.96 2.34 0.078
Rajanpur 332 72.5 3.55 2.39 5.28 0.0001 1.09 0.7 1.69 0.699
Dera Ghazi Khan 440 76.9 4.51 2.89 7.03 0.0001 1.72 1.05 2.82 0.032
Place of residence           
Urban 595 50.5 1.00        
Rural 3,272 64.3 1.77 1.48 2.10 0.0001 NS    
Lady health worker program area           
Yes 2,670 58.8 1.00        
No 1,197 69.3 1.58 1.34 1.85 0.0001 NS    
Age of respondents           
15 to 24 years 849 58.1 1.00     1.00    
25 to 34 years 1,996 60.6 1.10 0.95 1.27 0.200 1.07 0.90 1.28 0.409
35 to 44 years 923 66.3 1.37 1.14 1.14 0.001 1.12 0.91 1.39 0.290
45 years and more 98 81.4 3.11 1.84 184 <0.0001 1.97 1.07 3.62 0.029
Educational status of respondents           
Above secondary 101 28.6 1.00     1.00    
At least some secondary school 324 40.6 1.71 1.25 2.33 0.001 1.27 0.89 1.82 0.197
At least some primary school 486 53.4 2.86 2.08 3.92 0.0001 1.70 1.16 2.49 0.006
No education 2,956 70.3 5.91 4.48 7.79 0.0001 2.36 1.65 3.37 <0.0001
Working status of respondents           
Not working 2,516 58.2 1.00        
Working 1,345 69.7 1.65 1.43 1.91 0.0001 NS    
Educational status of respondents’ husband           
Above secondary 454 41.3 1.00     1.00    
At least some secondary school 1,050 57.2 1.90 1.61 2.25 0.0001 1.32 1.06 1.64 0.014
At least some primary school 647 65.4 2.69 2.23 3.24 0.0001 1.34 1.04 1.72 0.023
No education 1,684 73.5 3.93 3.32 4.66 0.0001 1.58 1.27 1.97 <0.0001
Household wealth index           
Highest 542 43.8 1.00     1.00    
Medium high 865 54.2 1.52 1.25 1.84 0.0001 1.02 0.81 1.27 0.890
Medium low 1,172 68.6 2.81 2.33 3.39 0.0001 1.34 1.05 1.71 0.017
Lowest 1,287 74.7 3.80 3.14 4.60 0.0001 1.47 1.11 1.93 0.006
Outcome of last live birth within 5 years preceding the survey           
Singleton 3,814 61.7 1.00        
Twins 52 60.4 0.94 0.56 1.59 0.831 NS    
Duration since last birth within 5 years preceding the survey           
Within 1 year 1,176 58.4 1.00        
1 to 2 years 1,833 62.1 1.17 1.01 1.35 0.035 NS    
3 and more years 858 66.0 1.38 1.16 1.66 <0.0001     
Number of live births within 5 years preceding the survey           
One 1,702 62.0 1.00        
Two 1,570 60.9 0.95 0.83 1.09 0.505 NS    
Three and more 595 63.1 1.05 0.87 1.27 0.622     
Antenatal services by type of providers           
Health professionals 1,739 44.2 1.00     1.00    
Untrained providers 62 56.7 1.65 1.05 2.59 0.029 1.44 0.91 2.27 0.130
No services 1,942 92.7 16.07 12.99 19.88 <0.0001 13.39 10.70 16.75 <0.0001
  1. 147 missing values were excluded from the analysis.
  2. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals were obtained using logistic regression analysis.
  3. 1OR: Odds Ratio.
  4. 2CI: Confidence Interval.