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Table 3 Risk of obstetric complications by demographic and pregnancy-related factors

From: Birth attendance and magnitude of obstetric complications in Western Kenya: a retrospective case–control study

Variable Cases (N = 294) Controls (N = 289) OR (95% CI)* p-value
Age N % N %   
< 18 yrs 12 4.1 18 6.3 0.59 (0.25,1.40) 0.228
19-24 yrs 100 33.9 95 33.0 1.58 (0.72,3.45) 0.253
25-29 yrs 115 39.0 107 37.2 1.61 (0.74,3.50) 0.228
30 yrs and over 67 22.7 69 24.0 1.45 (0.65,3.26) 0.359
Number of pregnancies and miscarriages       
1 62 21.1 64 22.2 0.97 (0.64,1.48) 0.887
2 75 25.4 75 26.0 1.03 (0.64,1.66) 0.895
3 50 16.9 42 14.6 1.23 (0.72,2.11) 0.453
4 82 27.8 82 28.5 1.03 (0.59,1.79) 0.910
>4 25 8.5 27 9.4 1.00 (0.62,1.63) 0.995
Marital status       
Unmarried/single 28 9.5 28 9.7 0.96 (0.55,1.66) 0.878
Married 259 87.8 248 86.1 0.76 (0.46, 1.24) 0.266
Divorced/separated/widowed 7 2.4 14 4.8 0.48 (0.19,1.21) 0.118
Highest level of schooling       
No education 38 12.9 38 13.2 1.09 (0.63,1.88) 0.755
Primary incomplete 76 25.8 84 29.2 0.76 (0.46, 1.24) 0.266
Primary complete 57 19.3 71 24.7 0.88 (0.55,1.40) 0.577
Secondary incomplete 53 18.0 49 17.0 1.18 (0.72,1.94) 0.514
Secondary complete 41 13.9 35 12.2 1.28 (0.74,2.21) 0.379
Tertiary (complete) 27 9.2 13 4.5 2.27 (1.09,4.70) 0.028
Religion       
Catholic 79 26.8 77 26.7 1.06 (0.73,1.54) 0.747
Protestant/other Christian 195 66.1 202 70.1 0.63 (0.44, 0.91) 0.014
Muslim 11 3.7 4 1.4 2.85 (0.89,9.10) 0.077
No religion 7 2.4 4 1.4 1.81 (0.52,6.29) 0.349
Main occupation       
Self employed 67 22.7 42 14.6 1.69 (1.08, 2.65) 0.023
Farming/agriculture 138 46.8 146 50.7 0.71 (0.51, 1.02) 0.060
Skilled labour 21 7.1 28 9.7 0.79 (0.43,1.46) 0.459
Unskilled labour 25 8.5 33 11.5 0.80 (0.45,1.42) 0.446
Professionals e.g. teacher 27 9.2 17 5.9 1.68 (0.88,3.32) 0.118
Other 14 4.7 21 7.3 0.71 (0.34,1.44) 0.339
Type of wall material       
Mud/Earth 228 77.8 240 83.0 0.57 (0.37,0.87) 0.08
Bricks 57 19.5 41 14.2 1.81 (1.16,2.83) 0.08
Blocks/wood/stones 8 2.7 8 2.7 1.51 (0.52,4.44) 0.445
  1. *This is crude odds ratio (non-adjusted).