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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants stratified by the prepregnancy BMI (n = 2009)

From: Socioeconomic disparities in prepregnancy BMI and impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes and postpartum weight retention: the EFHL longitudinal birth cohort study

  Prepregnancy BMI  
Underweight (BMI < 18.5) Normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.99) Overweight (BMI 25-29.99) Obese (BMI ≥ 30)
Characteristics (N=167) (N= 1052) (N= 430) (N= 360) p-value (two-sided)
Maternal Characteristics:
Maternal age (y)      
  < 20 12 (7.3%) 48 (4.7%) 14 (3.3%) 11 (3.1%) 0.017*b
  20-24 49 (29.7%) 198 (19.2%) 69 (16.3%) 74 (21.0%)
  25-29 38 (23.0%) 293 (28.4%) 135 (31.8%) 99 (28.0%)
  30-34 33 (20.0%) 280 (27.2%) 119 (28.1%) 89 (25.2%)
  ≥ 35 33 (20.0%) 212 (20.6%) 87 (20.5%) 80 (22.7%)
  Missing data 2 21 6 7
Born in Australia 114 (68.3%) 733 (69.7%) 312 (72.6%) 259 (71.9%) 0.589
  Missing data 0 1 0 0
Maternal employment      
  Employed 75 (46.3%) 564 (54.5%) 209 (49.2%) 169 (48.3%) 0.038*b
  Unemployed 26 (16.0%) 113 (10.9%) 42 (9.9%) 36 (10.3%)
  Not in-labour force 61 (37.7%) 358 (34.6%) 174 (40.9%) 145 (41.4%)
  Missing data 5 17 5 10
Marital status      
  Single 15 (9.0%) 65 (6.2%) 20 (4.7%) 31 (8.6%) 0.001*b
  Dating relationship 14 (8.4%) 32 (3.1%) 17 (4.0%) 22 (6.1%)
  De facto 76 (45.5%) 382 (36.4%) 158 (37.0%) 126 (35.0%)
  Married 62 (37.1%) 557 (53.1%) 225 (52.7%) 175 (48.6%)
  Separate/Divorce/Widow 0 (0%) 13 (1.2%) 7 (1.6%) 6 (1.7%)
  Missing data 0 3 3 0
Maternal education level      
  Primary school 2 (1.2%) 9 (0.9%) 4 (0.9%) 4 (1.1%) <0.001*b
  Not complete secondary 37 (22.3%) 176 (16.8%) 85 (20.0%) 77 (21.5%)
  Secondary school 50 (30.1%) 301 (28.7%) 137 (32.2%) 129 (36.0%)
  TAFE/Trade 46 (27.7%) 306 (29.2%) 129 (30.3%) 107 (29.9%)
  University 31 (18.7%) 257 (24.5%) 71 (16.7%) 41 (11.5%)
  Missing data 1 3 4 2
Nutrition Factors:     
Supplements Intake      
  Iron 51 (30.5%) 301 (28.6%) 118 (27.4%) 67 (18.6%) 0.001*a-
  Zinc 37 (23.3%) 196 (19.8%) 80 (19.2%) 53 (15.4%) 0.039*a-
  Calcium 27 (16.2%) 139 (13.2%) 40 (9.3%) 32 (8.9%) 0.001*a-
  Folic acid 84 (52.5%) 511 (51.5%) 222 (53.0%) 166 (47.7%) 0.499
  Multivitamins 93 (55.7%) 548 (52.1%) 214 (49.8%) 140 (38.9%) <0.001*a-
  Vitamin C 55 (34.6%) 337 (34.1%) 133 (32.0%) 80 (23.2%) 0.001*a-
  Vitamin E 113 (67.7%) 735 (69.9%) 280 (65.1%) 191 (53.1%) <0.001*a-
  Pregnancy/breastfeeding sup. 38 (23.9%) 193 (19.6%) 91 (21.9%) 40 (11.5%) 0.004*a-
Household and Family Structure:      
Partner’s employment      
  Employed 142 (89.9%) 931 (93.7%) 392 (96.8%) 301 (90.7%) 0.017*b
  Unemployed 10 (6.3%) 37 (3.7%) 7 (1.7%) 17 (5.1%)  
  Not in-labour force 6 (3.8%) 26 (2.6%) 6 (1.5%) 14 (4.2%)  
  Missing data 9 58 25 28  
Partner’s education level      
  Primary school 4 (2.6%) 9 (0.9%) 5 (1.2%) 0 (0%) <0.001*b
  Not complete secondary 33 (21.2%) 182 (18.2%) 89 (21.9%) 94 (28.6%)
  Secondary school 41 (26.3%) 243 (24.3%) 114 (28.0%) 89 (27.1%)
  TAFE/Trade 52 (33.3%) 421 (42.2%) 150 (36.9%) 120 (36.5%)
  University 26 (16.7%) 143 (14.3%) 49 (12.0%) 26 (7.9%)  
  Missing data 11 54 23 31  
Household ownership     
  Own outright 6 (3.7%) 33 (3.2%) 3 (0.7%) 3 (0.8%) <0.001*b
  Own with mortgage 52 (31.9%) 457 (44.3%) 189 (44.9%) 121 (34.1%)
  Private rent 72 (44.2%) 446 (43.2%) 193 (45.8%) 178 (50.1%)
  Public housing 5 (3.1%) 23 (2.2%) 7 (1.7%) 13 (3.7%)
  Board with parents 28 (17.2%) 73 (7.1%) 29 (6.9%) 40 (11.3%)  
  Missing data 4 20 9 5  
Number of children under 16 y (household)     
  Nil 78 (47.3%) 413 (39.7%) 134 (31.6%) 115 (31.9%) <0.001*a+
  1-3 83 (50.3%) 595 (57.2%) 279 (65.8%) 217 (60.3%)
  More than 3 4 (2.4%) 33 (3.2%) 11 (2.6%) 28 (7.8%)
  Missing data 2 11 6 0
Maternal Health and Behaviours During Pregnancy:      
Maternal psychological distress      0.343
  Low risk 128 (77.6%) 853 (81.6%) 352 (83.0%) 280 (78.4%)  
  Medium risk 30 (18.2%) 158 (15.1%) 64 (15.1%) 61 (17.1%)
  High risk 7 (4.2%) 34 (3.3%) 8 (1.9%) 16 (4.5%)
  Missing data 2 7 6 3  
Smoke during pregnancy 59 (35.3%) 233 (22.2%) 109 (25.5%) 108 (30.3%) <0.001*b
  Missing data 0 1 3 3  
Alcohol intake 69 (41.3%) 536 (51.0%) 202 (47.4%) 137 (38.3%) 0.001*b
  Missing data 0 0 4 2
Non-medical drug usea 29 (17.6%) 98 (9.5%) 35 (8.3%) 42 (11.8%) 0.005*b
  Missing data 2 21 8 3  
Birth-related Factors:     
Primiparity 97 (58.8%) 674 (64.8%) 313 (73.5%) 267 (75.2%) <0.001*a+
  Missing data 2 12 4 5
Baby gender (Male) 80 (48.5%) 527 (50.9%) 201 (47.2%) 182 (51.3%) 0.564
  Missing data 2 16 4 5
Pre-existing hypertension 0 (0%) 6 (0.7%) 3 (0.8%) 8 (2.4%) 0.021*a+
  Missing data 23 144 48 26  
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level.
  2. aTest for ordinal association using Gamma coefficient (+indicates a positive association; -indicates a negative association).
  3. bTest for association using chi-square test.