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Table 4 12-month follow-up descriptive characteristics stratified by prepregnancy BMI (n = 1316)

From: Socioeconomic disparities in prepregnancy BMI and impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes and postpartum weight retention: the EFHL longitudinal birth cohort study

  Prepregnancy BMI  
Underweight Normal weight Overweight Obese
(BMI < 18.5) (BMI 18.5-24.99) (BMI 25-29.99) (BMI ≥ 30)
Characteristics (N=103) (N= 713) (N= 289) (N= 211) p-value (two-sided)
Maternal Factor:
Maternal mental health      
  Low risk 87 (85.3%) 653 (92.2%) 256 (89.8%) 184 (87.6%) 0.032*b
  Medium risk 11 (10.8%) 45 (6.4%) 27 (9.5%) 24 (11.4%)
  High risk 4 (3.9%) 10 (1.4%) 2 (0.7%) 2 (1.0%)
  Missing data 1 5 4 1
5+ alcoholic drinks on one occasion (one per week or more often) 5 (4.9%) 54 (7.6%) 25 (8.7%) 8 (3.8%) 0.126
  Missing data 0 0 2 0
One month or more as a lone parent 22 (21.8%) 108 (15.3%) 39 (13.6%) 46 (21.8%) 0.030*b
  Missing data 2 5 2 0
Weight retention      
  Mean in kg (SD) 3.64 (5.7) 2.33 (5.2) 2.48 (6.2) -0.78 (9.3) <0.001*c
Nutrition and Physical Activity Factor:
Breastfeed longer than or equal to 3 months 69 (67.0%) 514 (72.7%) 171 (59.8% 116 (55.8%) <0.001*a-
  Missing data 0 6 3 3  
Four serves or more of fruit and vegetables each day 29 (28.2%) 230 (32.3%) 71 (24.6%) 56 (26.7%) 0.073
  Missing data 0 1 0 1
Takeaway food (more than once a week) 12 (11.8%) 49 (6.7%) 23 (8.0%) 26 (12.3%) 0.035*b
  Missing data 1 9 1 0
Play group or recreational activity with baby 53 (51.5%) 468 (65.7%) 158 (55.1%) 127 (60.5%) 0.002*b
  Missing data 0 1 2 1
Moderate physical activity (30+ minutes, at least once per week) 46 (44.7%) 443 (62.8%) 175 (61.2%) 128 (61.5%) 0.006*b
  Missing data 0 8 3 3  
Walking (30+ minutes, at least once per week) 84 (81.6%) 634 (89.3%) 252 (88.4%) 175 (83.7%) 0.038*b
  Missing data 0 3 4 2
Child Development and Household Factor:
Injury of child 19 (18.4%) 106 (14.9%) 50 (17.4%) 35 (16.7%) 0.658
  Missing data 0 0 1 1  
Asthma 4 (3.9%) 59 (8.4%) 34 (11.8%) 26 (12.4%) 0.004*a+
Chest infection 17 (16.7%) 153 (21.7%) 63 (21.9%) 54 (25.7%) 0.330
  Missing data 1 7 1 1  
Baby weight gain      
  Mean in kg (SD) 6.38 (1.7) 6.34 (1.5) 6.64 (1.5) 6.62 (1.3) 0.019*c
Passive smoking 6 (5.8%) 40 (5.6%) 22 (7.7%) 15 (7.1%) 0.626
  Missing data 0 0 2 0
  1. *Significant at the 0.05 level.
  2. aTest for ordinal association using Gamma coefficient (+indicates a positive association; -indicates a negative association).
  3. bTest for association using chi-square test.
  4. cTest for difference in means using ANOVA (Difference found between normal and overweight).