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Table 1 Maternal characteristics stratified by maternal fasting category and in total+

From: Experiences and outcomes of maternal Ramadan fasting during pregnancy: results from a sub-cohort of the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

  None (n = 172) Fasted (n = 128)
Mothers age (years), mean SD 29.0 5.4 27.6 4.7
range 24-32.5   24-30  
Trimester exposed to fasting     
1st -   42 32.8
2nd -   74 57.8
3rd -   11 8.6
Duration of fasting     
None 172 100   
1-9 days    26 20.3
10-19 days    26 20.3
20-29 days    76 59.4
Total period of Ramadan (29 days)    43 14.3
Ethnic group     
Pakistani 161 93.6 114 89.1
Indian 7 4.1 3 2.3
Bangladeshi 4 2.3 9 7.0
Other South Asian 0 0 2 1.6
Booking BMI category     
Underweight 10 5.8 10 7.8
Normal 69 40.1 37 28.9
Overweight 46 26.7 31 24.2
Obese 29 16.9 38 29.7
Missing 18 10.5 12 9.4
Parity     
0 62 36.0 30 23.4
1 43 25.0 37 28.9
2 28 16.3 24 18.8
3+ 35 20.4 33 25.8
Missing 4 2.3 4 3.1
Marital status     
Married 163 94.7 127 99.2
Single 4 2.3 1 0.8
Divorced/Separated 5 2.9 0 0
Maternal employment     
Currently working 50 29.1 25 19.5
Ever worked 45 26.2 27 21.1
Never worked 77 44.8 76 59.4
Mothers education     
<5 GCSE equivalent 32 18.6 39 30.5
5 GCSE equivalent 45 26.2 39 30.5
A-level equivalent 27 15.7 21 16.4
Higher than A-level 63 36.6 27 21.1
Other 5 2.9 2 1.6
Mothers lives in extended family     
No 93 54.1 64 50.0
Yes 79 45.9 64 50.0
Maternal smoking status during pregnancy     
No 164 95.4 85 100
Yes 8 4.6 0 0
Mother in consanguineous relationship     
No 90 52.3 47 36.7
Yes 82 47.7 81 63.3
Mother born in UK or moved young     
No 73 42.4 69 53.9
Yes 99 57.6 59 46.1
Gestational diabetes*     
No 149 86.6 108 84.4
Yes 23 13.4 20 15.6
Pregnancy induced hypertension*     
No 156 90.7 111 86.7
Mild to moderate 3 1.7 4 3.1
Severe 1 0.6 1 0.8
Missing 12 7.0 12 9.4
Pre-eclampsia*     
No 157 91.3 116 90.6
Yes 3 1.7 0 0
Missing 12 7.0 12 9.4
Birth outcomes     
Birthweight (grams), (SD) 3133 467.4 3219.3 534.4
Gestational length (weeks), SD 39.1 1.6 39.2 1.5
Preterm delivery 6 3.5 4 3.1
Low birth weight (<2500 g), (SD) 14 8.1 8 6.3
Male gender 79 45.9 65 50.8
  1. + The results of all variables are n (%) unless otherwise stated.
  2. *No existing diabetics, Only 1 participant had pre-existing hypertension.