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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted relationship of covariables to fasting behaviour (Odds compared to non-fasters)

From: Experiences and outcomes of maternal Ramadan fasting during pregnancy: results from a sub-cohort of the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

  Unadjusted results* Adjusted results
  Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value Odds Ratio 95% CI p-value
Mothers age 0.95 0.90-0.99 0.02 0.87 0.80-0.94 <0.01
Ethnic group       
Pakistani 1 (ref)    1 (ref)   
Indian 0.61 0.15-2.39 0.47 1.89 0.38-9.47 0.44
Bangladeshi 3.18 0.96-10.57 0.06 3.77 1.04-13.65 0.04
Other South Asian - -     
Booking BMI category       
Underweight 1.86 0.64-5.39 0.26 1.89 0.62-5.79 0.27
Normal 1    1   
Overweight 1.26 0.68-2.30 0.41 1.41 0.71-2.81 0.33
Obese 2.44 1.31-4.57 0.03 2.78 1.29-5.97 <0.01
Parity       
0 1    1   
1 1.78 0.96-3.30 0.06 2.09 0.98-4.45 0.06
2 1.77 0.88-3.56 0.11 3.69 1.38-9.86 <0.01
3+ 1.95 1.02-3.71 0.04 3.99 1.39-11.49 0.01
Migration status       
Born in the UK or moved < 5 years 1    1   
Moved to UK >5 years 1.59 1.00-2.51 0.05 1.37 0.73-2.58 0.33
Maternal employment       
Currently working 1    1   
Ever worked 1.20 0.61-2.36 0.60 0.80 0.33-1.93 0.62
Never worked 1.54 1.11-3.51 0.02 1.12 0.50-2.51 0.79
Mothers education       
<5 GCSE equivalent 1 1    1  
5 GCSE equivalent 0.71 0.38-1.34 0.47 0.63 0.30-1.35 0.23
A-level equivalent 0.64 0.31-1.33 0.42 0.70 0.28-1.76 0.45
Higher than A-level 0.35 0.18-0.67 <0.01 0.40 0.18-0.91 0.03
Other 0.33 0.06-1.81 0.23 0.77 0.11-5.34 0.79
Mother in consanguineous relationship       
No   1   1 1  
Yes 1.89 1.19-3.02 <0.01 1.37 0.77-2.51 0.28
  1. *marital status, living in extended family, gestational diabetes and pregnancy induced hypertension were examined but were not found to be associated with fasting in univariate analyses.