You are viewing the site in preview mode

Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Risk factors for any urinary incontinence three months postpartum

From: Effects of carrying a pregnancy and of method of delivery on urinary incontinence: a prospective cohort study

Risk factors N Risk (%) Crude OR 95% CI Adj. OR* 95% CI
Age (years)       
   ≤25 141 26 1.00 -   
   26–29 338 29 1.16 0.75,1.81   
   30–34 356 32 1.29 0.83, 2.00   
   ≥35 114 41 1.97 1.16,3.35   
Age (continuous)    1.04 1.01,1.07 1.02 0.99,1.06
Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2)
   <20.0 216 25 1.00 -   
   20.0–23.9 442 30 1.31 0.90,1.89   
   ≥24.0 291 37 1.74 1.18,2.58   
BMI (continuous)    1.05 1.02,1.09 1.07 1.03,1.11
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)
   ≤11.0 268 31 1.00 -   
   11.1–14.0 272 30 0.93 0.64,1.34   
   14.1–17.0 194 35 1.18 0.80,1.75   
   >17.0 215 29 0.89 0.60,1.31   
Baby's weight (g)
   <4000 837 31 1.00 -   
   ≥4000 112 30 0.96 0.73,1.48   
Previous vaginal birth
   0 572 28 1.00 - 1.00 -
   ≥1 377 36 1.50 1.13,1.98 1.30 0.85,1.98
Group of randomization
Controls 478 33 1.00    
Massage 470 29 0.85 0.65,1.12   
Urinary incontinence Before delivery       
   None 319 17 1.00 - 1.00 -
   Onset before Index pregnancy 211 56 6.24 4.20,9.27 6.44 4.15,9.98
   Onset during Index pregnancy 412 29 1.98 1.39,2.83 1.93 1.32,2.83
Type of delivery
   Spontaneous 682 33 1.00 - 1.00 -
   Vacuum 79 35 1.11 0.68,1.80 1.27 0.74,2.19
   Forceps 74 37 1.16 0.70,1.91 1.73 0.96,3.13
   Caesarean‡‡ 114 12 0.28 0.16,0.51 0.27 0.14,0.50
Epidural anesthesia‡
   No 294 35 1.00 -   
   Yes 541 33 0.93 0.69,1.26   
Duration of second Stage (hrs)‡
   <0.5 317 39 1.00 - 1.00 -
   0.5–0.9 175 31 0.71 0.48,1.06 0.85 0.54,1.33
   1.0–1.4 127 31 0.71 0.46,1.10 0.78 0.46,1.35
   ≥1.5 216 31 0.71 0.49,1.0 0.68 0.52,1.42
Episiotomy‡
   No 612 35 1.00 - 1.00 -
   Yes 223 29 0.75 0.54,1.05 0.68 0.47,1.01
  1. Total may vary because of missing values. *Adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, previous vaginal birth, timing of onset of urinary incontinence, type of delivery, duration of second stage, and episiotomy. ‡only vaginal deliveries (n = 835) included ‡‡Adjusted for maternal age, body mass index, previous vaginal birth, timing of onset of urinary incontinence, type of delivery