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Table 3 Characteristics of children and their environment for children in each risk category

From: Maternal mental health predicts risk of developmental problems at 3 years of age: follow up of a community based trial

  Path A (high risk of developmental problems) Path B (moderate risk of developmental problems) Path C (elevated risk of behavioral and/or mental health problems) Path E (extremely low to no risk)  
  n (%) N = 86 n (%) N = 239 n (%) N = 186 n (%) N = 280 p-value
Child's health history and current health      
Male infant 60 (70) 124 (52) 88 (47) 111 (40) <0.001
Ear infections prior to age 2 46 (53) 90 (39) 68 (37) 96 (35) 0.018
Child has problems with vision 4 (5) 8 (3) 6 (3) 8 (3) 0.846
Child's current general health      
   Excellent/Very good 73 (85) 215 (90) 177 (95) 266 (95) 0.003
   Fair/Poor/Terrible 13 (15) 24 (10) 9 (5) 14 (5)  
Compared to 1 year ago, child's health is*:      
   About the same 49 (57) 170 (71) 141 (76) 219 (78) 0.007
   Better 34 (40) 62 (26) 38 (20) 55 (20)  
   Worse 3 (3) 7 (3) 7 (4) 6 (2)  
Preterm delivery 5 (6) 15 (7) 16 (9) 13 (5) 0.388
Child's health care      
Child has been referred to:      
   Early intervention program 8 (9) 7 (3) 2 (1) 1 (1) <0.001
   Speech and language pathologist 21 (35) 30 (13) 3 (2) 6 (2) <0.001
   Child developmental pediatrician 8 (9) 7 (3) 3 (2) 4 (1) 0.005
   Psychologist 3 (3) 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.003
   Physiotherapist 7 (8) 8 (3) 3 (2) 9 (3) 0.071
Child has had any referral 37 (43) 58 (24) 22 (12) 35 (13) <0.001
Child has had hearing tested 41 (48) 67 (28) 58 (31) 53 (19) <0.001
Child has had hearing tested due to repeat or chronic ear infection 11 (27) 6 (9) 5 (9) 6 (11) 0.028
Hearing tested due to suspected deafness 15 (39) 14 (21) 6 (10) 8 (15) 0.006
Mother's demographics and lifestyle      
Marital Status      
   Married/Common-law 79 (92) 229 (96) 173 (94) 265 (95) 0.014
   Separated/Divorced 2 (2) 6 (3) 2 (1) 12 (4)  
   Single 5 (6) 4 (2) 10 (5) 3 (1)  
Age < 25 years 2 (2) 11 (5) 13 (7) 9 (3) 0.217
Working at paid job 52 (61) 142 (59) 104 (57) 184 (66) 0.220
Education is high school or lower 18 (21) 40 (17) 28 (15) 38 (14) 0.393
Current household income per year      
   <$40,000 13 (16) 19 (8) 15 (8) 18 (7) 0.014
   $40,000–$80,000 35 (43) 85 (37) 68 (40) 79 (30)  
   >$80,000 34 (41) 123 (54) 89 (52) 164 (63)  
Mother's mental and emotional health history      
History of depression prior to pregnancy 31 (36) 49 (20) 36 (19) 56 (20) 0.009
Witnessed abuse prior to pregnancy* 46 (53) 86 (36) 76 (41) 98 (35) 0.014
History of abuse prior to pregnancy* 40 (47) 80 (33) 68 (37) 73 (26) 0.003
Poor network orientation during pregnancy 6 (7) 4 (2) 10 (5) 6 (2) 0.024
Feelings of distress during pregnancy 39 (45) 77 (32) 66 (35) 82 (29) 0.043
Feelings of contentment, relaxation, and well-being during pregnancy 43 (50) 155 (65) 139 (75) 207 (74) <0.001
Mother's mental and emotional health post partum      
Edinburgh Post Partum Score >10 within first 4 months 9(12) 17 (9) 12 (8) 16 (7) 0.523
Edinburgh Post Partum Score >13 within first 4 months 3(4) 8 (4) 4 (3) 5 (2) 0.659
≥2 weeks of depression since infant born 40 (47) 84 (35) 76 (41) 81 (29) 0.007
Rating of current physical health is fair/poor/terrible 30 (35) 61 (26) 41 (22) 59 (21) 0.058
Rating of current emotional health is fair/poor/terrible 29 (34) 62 (26) 49 (26) 63 (23) 0.217
Currently some tension in relationship with partner 45 (56) 92 (40) 64 (36) 92 (34) 0.004
Rating of current social support is fair/poor/terrible 13 (15) 26 (11) 22 (12) 29 (10) 0.670
Parenting      
High Parenting Morale 71 (83) 215 (90) 167 (90) 262 (94) 0.024
Parent reads to child once or more per day 74 (86) 211 (88) 164 (89) 247(89) 0.930
Family eats 1 or more meals together daily 64 (74) 207 (87) 147 (79) 240 (86) 0.014
  1. *Types of abuse could include any one of physical, emotional, sexual, financial abuse, or neglect
  2. Note: Denominator varies due to missing data