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Table 3 Risk factors for adverse maternal outcome among 31,269 women with a postpartum haemorrhage

From: Trends in adverse maternal outcomes during childbirth: a population-based study of severe maternal morbidity

  Maternal morbidity   
  Yes N = 3745% No N = 27524% Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR* (95%CI)
Year (ref = 1999) †    1.03 (1.01–1.05) 1.03 (1.01–1.05)
Maternal age     
   <20 4.9 4.2 1.24 (1.05–1.45) 1.25 (1.06–1.48)
   20–34 73.6 78.3 1.00 1.00 (Referent)
   ≥ 35 21.5 17.5 1.30 (1.19–1.42) 1.16 (1.06–1.27)
Parity     
   0 48.8 47.1 1.18 (1.09–1.28) 1.14 (1.04–1.25)
   1 26.5 30.3 1 1.00 (Referent)
   2 13.4 13.6 1.12 (1.00–1.28) 1.10 (0.98–1.23)
   3 5.9 5.3 1.24 (1.06–1.45) 1.19 (1.01–1.40)
   ≥ 4 5.6 3.8 1.69 (1.43–1.99) 1.41 (1.19–1.68)
Previous caesarean 12.1 6.9 1.85 (1.66–2.07) 1.52 (1.33–1.73)
Multiple pregnancy 5.3 2.6 2.12 (1.80–2.49) 1.61 (1.35–1.92)
Malpresentation 5.3 3.1 1.68 (1.43–1.97) Not retained
Smoking 17.8 15.2 1.21 (1.10–1.32) 1.19 (1.08–1.31)
Diabetes     
   Pre-gestational 0.5 0.3 1.76 (1.04–2.99) Not retained
   Gestational 5.3 4.4 1.19 (1.02–1.39) Not retained
Hypertension 16.3 11.6 1.49 (1.35–1.64) 1.30 (1.18–1.44)
Renal disease 0.4 0.1 2.92 (1.61–5.32) 2.76 (1.49–5.11)
Cardiac disease 1.7 0.3 5.10 (3.67–7.10) 4.13 (2.94–5.81)
Antepartum haemorrhage 8.3 2.5 3.54 (3.07–4.07) 2.53 (2.16–2.95)
Hospital type     
   Small rural 10.8 9.1 1.22 (1.09–1.37) 1.41 (1.26–1.59)
   District 27.0 26.3 1.06 (0.97–1.15) 1.18 (1.08–1.28)
   Tertiary obstetric 49.5 50.9 1.00 (Referent) 1.00 (Referent)
   Private 12.7 13.7 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.99 (1.88–1.09)
Induction of labour 33.1 30.1 1.15 (1.07–1.24) 1.19 (1.10–1.28)
Mode of delivery     
   Spontaneous vaginal 54.8 70.3 1.00 (Referent) 1.00 (Referent)
   Instrumental 21.1 17.2 1.59 (1.45–1.73) 1.56 (1.42–1.72)
   CS prior to labour 11.4 5.7 2.60 (2.31–2.92) 1.74 (1.51–2.00)
   CS during labour 12.7 6.8 2.38 (2.13–2.66) 1.99 (1.77–2.24)
Gestational age (weeks)     
   20–32 3.8 1.9 2.05 (1.68–2.49) 1.39 (1.13–1.72)
   33–36 6.9 4.0 1.80 (1.56–2.08) 1.27 (1.09–1.48)
   37+ 89.3 94.1 1.00 (Referent) 1.00 (Referent)
  1. *Adjusted for other factors in the table as indicated; Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness-of-Fit
  2. P = 0.46.
  3. † linear, for each extra year the odds ratio (OR) approximates change in rate.
  4. CS caesarean section.