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Table 3 Complications reported in the HELLP syndrome

From: The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review

Maternal complications Occurrence (%) References
Eclampsia 4–9 [56]
Abruptio placentae 9–20 [3, 9, 35, 45, 57]
DIC 5–561 [35, 36, 58]
Acute renal failure 7–36 [4, 57, 59, 60]
Severe ascites 4–11 [36]
Cerebral oedema 1–8 [14, 36]
Pulmonary oedema 3–10 [3, 36, 60]
Wound hematoma/infection2 7–14 [3, 56]
Subcapsular liver hematoma Between 0.9% and <2% [9, 14, 6164]
Liver rupture >200 cases or about 1.8% [45, 65]
Hepatic infarction >30 cases combined with APS [66]
Recurrent thrombosis Associated with prothrombin gene 20210a mutation [67]
Retinal detachment 1 [14]
Cerebral infarction Few case reports [6871]
Cerebral Haemorrhage 1.5–403 [3, 36, 70]
Maternal death 1–25 [5, 11]
Foetal/neonatal complications   
Perinatal death 7.4–34 [9, 72, 73].
IUGR 38–61 [5, 72, 74]
Preterm delivery4 70 (15% < 28 gestational weeks) [9]
Neonatal thrombocytopenia 5 15–50 [5, 75]
RDS 5.7–40 [72, 76, 77]
  1. 1 depending on diagnostic criteria
  2. 2 after Caesarean section
  3. 3 in a highly selected group of patients
  4. 4 associated with increased risks of RDS, IVH and CP
  5. 5PLTs < 100·109/L