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Table 18 Summary of evidence grading for all interventions prior to and during pregnancy to prevent stillbirth and perinatal mortality reviewed in this paper

From: Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy

  Evidence of no or negative impact (leave out of programs) Uncertain evidence (need for additional research before including in programs) Some evidence (may include in programs, but further evaluation is warranted) Clear evidence (merits inclusion in programs)
Calcium supplementation for pregnancy-induced hypertension   X1   
Anti-hypertensives   X   
Anti-platelet agents   X   
Anti-oxidants X    
Heparin     X (for certain conditions)
Management of intrahepatic cholestasis    X  
Plasma exchange   X   
Cervical cerclage   X   
Anti-helminthics    X  
Syphilis screening and treatment    X  
Antibiotics for BV, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and GBS   X   
Antibiotics for PROM/PPROM   X   
Anti-malarials    X2  
ITNs     X
PMTCT for HIV X2    
Periodontal care   X   
  1. 1Possibly effective in some low-resource settings
  2. 2Maternal and infant benefit