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Table 7 Impact of anti-oxidant supplementation on stillbirth and perinatal mortality

From: Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy

Source Location and Type of Study Intervention Stillbirths/Perinatal Outcomes
Reviews and meta-analyses
Rumbold et al. 2008 [77] UK, Australia, South Africa. Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 4 RCTs included. Compared impact of supplementation with any anti-oxidants vs. control/placebo. Fetal death rate (miscarriage+SB): RR = 1.32 (95% CI: 0.92–1.90) [NS] [66/2569 vs. 50/2575 in intervention vs. control groups, respectively.]
Rumbold et al. 2005 [78] UK, South Africa Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 3 RCTs included Compared impact of supplementation with Vitamin C vs. control/placebo. SBR: RR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.41–1.87) [NS] [9/268 vs. 11/271 in intervention vs. control groups, respectively.]
Rumbold et al. 2005 [79] UK, South Africa Meta-analysis (Cochrane). 2 RCTs included. Compared impact of supplementation with Vitamin E vs. control/placebo. SBR: RR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.35–1.71) [8/168 vs. 11/171 in intervention vs. control groups, respectively.]
Intervention studies
Roberts et al. 2008 [80] USA. RCT. N = 9969 low-risk nulliparous women 9–16 weeks gestation at enrolment. Compared impact of supplementation with Vitamin C (1000 mg/day) plus Vitamin E (400 IU/day) vs. placebo. Severe hypertension or pregnancy-related hypertension with at least one of the following: SGA, hepatic or renal dysfunction, eclampsia, stillbirth, or neonatal death before discharge: 6.1% vs. 5.8% in antioxidant vs. placebo groups, respectively/ Pre-eclampsia (7.2% vs. 6.7% in antioxidant vs. placebo groups, respectively).