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Table 3 Summary of the significance and direction of the associations between SEP measures and MCH outcomes in different groups from the Canadian maternity experiences survey

From: Patterns of social inequalities across pregnancy and birth outcomes: a comparison of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic measures

  Education a Household income (LICO) b Neihgbourhood SEP c Combined SEP d
A- Maternal and infant health status indicators
1. Preterm Birth + NS NS + (*) (low-high)
2. Small for gestational Age NS + + + (low-low)
3. Self rated health + + + + (low-low)
4. Postpartum Depression + + + + (low-low)
5. Pre-pregnancy BMI (<18.5) + + + + (low-low)
6. Pre-pregnancy BMI (>24.5) + + NS + (low-high)
B- Prenatal care
7. First prenatal care visit + + + + (low-low)
8. Timing of ultrasound - NS NS NS
9. HIV testing (no) NS - NS + (low-low)
10. Received enough information during pregnancy + + + + (low-low)
11. Weight gained during pregnancy (kg) - (Below recommended range) + + (*) NS + (*) (low-high)
12. Weight gained during pregnancy (kg)-more (Above recommended range) + + NS + (low-high)
C- Labor and delivery expereinces
13. Type of birth (caesarean) NS - NS + (low-high)
14. Epidural for a vaginal birth - - NS + (low-high)
15. Shaving for a vaginal birth + + + + (low-high)
16. Position for vaginal birth (not laying flat) NS + + + (low-low)
D- Medical care during the neonatal period
17. Infant hospital readmission NS NS NS NS
18. Infant needing non-routine neonatal care after discharge? - - - - (low-low)
19. Baby admitted to NICU after birth NS NS NS NS
20. Length of hospital stay after caesarean birth (More than average) NS NS + + (high-low)
21. Length of hospital stay after vaginal birth (More than average) + (*) NS NS NS
E- Postpartum infant care & maternal reflections on the overall experience of health care
22. Any breastfeeding at 3 months + + - + (low-high)
23. Any breastfeeding at 6 months + + - + (low-high)
24. Overall experience of labor and birth NS + NS + (low-high)
25. Satisfaction with previous aspects of maternity care + +(*) NS NS
  1. (+) Significant positive association (OR higher than 1) (P < 0.05).
  2. (−) Significant negative association (OR less than 1) (P < 0.05).
  3. (NS) Non-significant association.
  4. (*) Significant at the level of 0.05 < p-value ≤ 0.10.
  5. Reference category: aMore than high school, bAbove LICO, cMore than15% of households below LICO, dHigh individual-high neighboruhood SEP.