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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at index pregnancy 2005 presented as women with normal pregnancy and women with pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and as born in and outside Sweden

From: Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

  Normal pregnancy Pregnancy with GDM P-value Participants born in Sweden with normal pregnancy Participants born in Sweden with pregnancy with GDM P-value Participants born outside Sweden with normal pregnancy Participants born outside Sweden with pregnancy with GDM P-value
Status prior to index pregnancy 2005 (N = 333) (N = 111)   (N = 303) (N = 83)   (N = 29) (N = 27)  
PCOS diagnosis 5 (1.5%) 8 (7.6%) 0.004 1 4 (1.3%) 6 (7.4%) 0.0081 0 (0%) 2 (8.7%) 0.1981
Infertility treatment 17 (5.2%) 17 (15.7%) 0.0012 15 (5.0%) 14 (16.9%) 0.0012 2 (7.4%) 3 (12.5%) 0.6561
Smoking prior to pregnancy 46 (15.4%) 19 (19.0%) 0.3972 42 (15.5%) 16 (21.3%) 0.2312 4 (14.8%) 3 (12.5%) 0.8111
Heredity of diabetes mellitus 0 (0%) 8 (7.2%) <0.0011 0 (0%) 4 (4.8%) 0.0021 0 (0%) 4 (14.8%) 0.0481
Body Mass Index (BMI) prior to pregnancy (kg/m2)
  Mean, (± SD) 23.1 (3.5) 26.2 (5.7) <0.0013 23.2 (3.6) 26.2 (5.5) <0.0013 22.3 (2.2) 26.6 (6.4) 0.0023
  Median, (25th – 75th percentile) 22.6 (20.7-24.2) 25.1 (21.5-29.8) <0.0014 22.6 (20.8 – 24.3) 25.1 (21.4 - 29.8) <0.0014 21.9 (20.3 – 23.7) 26.3 (21.5 – 30.1) 0.2674
  Min - max 17.2 – 44.9 17.3 – 44.1   17.2 – 44.9 17.3 – 44.1   18.7 – 27.0 18.1 – 43.8  
Body Mass Index (BMI) classification 5 prior to pregnancy
  Underweight, BMI <18.49 9 (2.8%) 3 (2.8%) <0.0012 9 (3.1%) 2 (2.4%) <0.0012 0 1 (4.0%) 0.0042
  Normal weight, BMI 18.50-24.99 251 (77.7%) 47 (43.5%)   227 (76.9%) 36 (43.9%)   23 (85.2%) 10 (40.0%)  
  Overweight, BMI 25.00-29.99 48 (14.9%) 32 (29.6%)   44 (14.9%) 24 (29.3%)   4 (14.8%) 8 (32.0%)  
  Obesity, BMI ≥30.00 15 (4.6%) 26 (24.1%)   15 (5.1%) 20 (24.4%)   0 6 (24.0%)  
Physical activity prior to pregnancy
  No regular physical activity 148 (45.1%) 61 (57.0%) 0.0332 134 (44.7%) 40 (49.4%) 0.4502 13 (48.1%) 20 (80.0%) 0.0172
Status During Index Pregnancy 2005
Age
  Yrs (± SD) 31.0 (4.3) 33.5 (5.0) <0.0013 31.0 (±4.3) 33.4 (4.7) <0.0013 30.7 (4.8) 33.7 (6.2) 0.0403
Educational level
  Compulsory school 16 (4.8%) 7 (6.4%) 0.6552 12 (4.0%) 2 (2.4%) 0.6752 4 (13.8%) 5 (19.2%) 0.6472
  High school/Folk high school 134 (40.4%) 47 (43.1%)   126 (41.6%) 38 (45.8%)   8 (27.6%) 9 (34.6%)  
  University 182 (54.8%) 55 (50.5%)   165 (54.5%) 43 (51.8%)   17 (58.6%) 12 (46.2%)  
Parity
  Mean (± SD) 1.3 (0.8) 1.3 (1.3) 0.7573 1.3 (0.8) 1.3 (1.1) 0.7463 1.4 (1.0) 1.3 (1.7) 0.9493
  Median, (25th – 75th percentile) 1.0 (1.0 – 2.0) 1.0 (1.0 – 2.0) 0.9244 1.0 (1.0 – 2.0) 1.0 (1.0- 2.0) 0.8104 1.0 (1.0 – 2.0) 2.0 (1.0 – 3.0) 0.6224
  Min – Max 0 - 8 0 - 6   0 - 8 0 - 5   0 - 4 0 - 6  
Physical activity during pregnancy
  No regular physical activity 178 (55.1%) 69 (63.9%) 0.1102 158 (53.4%) 48 (60.0%) 0.2912 19 (73.1%) 20 (74.1%) 0.9342
Weight gain during pregnancy (kilograms)
  Mean (±SD) 14.8 (6.7) 12.8 (7.8) 0.0143 14.8 (6.8) 12.2 (7.6) 0.0043 14.1 (6.0) 14.4 (8.0) 0.8633
  1. 1Fishers’ test, 2Chi2-test, 3Student’s t-test, 4Mann–Whitney test, 5Definitions according to The World Health Organization (http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html).