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Table 2 Life style in participants four years after index pregnancy for women with and without previous GDM and born in or outside Sweden

From: Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

  Pregnancy without previous GDM Pregnancy with previousGDM P-value Participants born in Sweden without GDM Participants born in Sweden with GDM P-value Participants born outside Sweden without GDM Participants born outside Sweden with GDM P-value
Present status (N = 321) (N = 107) (N = 293) (N = 81) (n = 27) (N = 25)
Pregnant at follow up (excluded from calculations) 10 4   8 2   2 2  
Smoking
  On daily basis/ Occasionally 60 (18.7%) 21 (18.7%) 1.0001 51 (17.4%) 16 (19.8%) 0.6261 9 (33.3%) 4 (16.0%) 0.2052
  Never 261 (81.3%) 90 (81.3%)   242 (82.6%) 65 (80.2%)   18 (66.7%) 21 (84.0%)  
Alcohol habits
  Never 45 (14.0%) 24 (22.4%) 0.0071 35 (11.9%) 10 (12.3%) 0.1191 10 (37.0%) 14 (56.0%) 0.0351
  ≤ once a month 93 (29.0%) 43 (40.2%)   90 (30.7%) 36 (44.4%)   3 (11.1%) 7 (28.0%)  
  2-4 times/ month 142 (44.2%) 27 (25.2%)   131 (44.7%) 25 (30.9%)   10 (37.0%) 2 (8.0%)  
  2-3 times/ week 38 (11.8%) 12 (11.2%)   34 (11.6%) 10 (12.0%)   4 (14.8%) 1 (4.0%)  
  ≥4 times/week 3 (0.9%) 1 (0.9%)   3 (1.0%) 0   0 1 (4.0%)  
Units alcohol at each drinking occasion
  1-2 units 184 (67.2%) 61 (74.4%) 0.2151 171 (66.5%) 51 (71.8%) 0.3991 12 (75.0%) 9 (90.0%) 0.6172
  ≥3 units 90 (32.8%) 21 (25.6%)   86 (33.5%) 20 (28.2%)   4 (25.0%) 1 (10.0%)  
Eating habits
  3 main  courses/day5 262 (82.4%) 78 (72.9%) 0.0341 245 (84.5%) 60 (74.1%) 0.0301 16 (59.3%) 17 (68.0%) 0.5122
  Irregular habits6 56 (17.6%) 29 (27.1%)   45 (15.5%) 21 (25.9%)   11 (40.7%) 8 (32.0%)  
Amount of fruit and vegetables/day
  % of recommended amount, mean (±SD) 63.1% (±25.2) 61.1% (±25.1) 0.4943 63.5% (±25.1) 60.4% (±23.0) 0.3083 56.4% (±25.1) 62.1% (±31.0) 0.4713
Reached recommended amount of fruit and vegetables/day 7
  Yes 20 (6.3%) 9 (8.4%) 0.4511 18 (6.2%) 3 (3.7%) 0.5862 1 (3.8%) 5 (20.0%) 0.0992
  No 298 (93.7%) 98 (91.6%)   273 (93.8%) 78 (96.3%)   25 (96.2%) 20 (80.0%)  
Physical activity on regular basis
  Yes 197 (63.3%) 54 (53.5%) 0.0771 186 (64.6%) 47 (60.3%) 0.4811 11 (50.0%) 6 (27.3%) 0.2151
  No 114 (36.7%) 47 (46.5%)   102 (35.4%) 31 (39.7%)   11 (50.0%) 16 (72.7%)  
Frequency of physical activity/week 8
No of times/week,
  Mean (±SD) 2.6 (1.6) 2.6 (1.8) 0.7593 2.6 (1.5) 2.8 (1.8) 0.4903 2.6 (1.3) 2.7 (1.4) 0.9103
  Median, 25th -75th percentile 2.0 (1.2 - 3.0) 2.0 (1.2 - 3.4) 0.9224 2.0 (1.5 – 3.0) 2.0 (1.5 – 3.5) 0.9194 2.5 (1.0 – 4.0) 2.5 (1.75 – 3.5) 1.0004
Intensity of performed physical activity 8
  High 57 (29.1%) 5 (9.6%) 0.0061 55 (29.7%) 4 (8.5%) 0.0071 2 (18.2%) 1 (25.0%) 0.7742
  Moderate 102 (52.0%) 30 (57.7%)   97 (52.4%) 29 (61.7%)   5 (45.5%) 1 (25.0%)  
  Low 37 (18.9%) 17 (32.7%)   33 (17.8%) 14 (29.8%)   4 (36.4%) 2 (50.0%)  
Reached the recommended level of physical activity 8
  Yes9 65 (33.0%) 10 (19.2%) 0.0622 61 (32.8%) 10 (21.3%) 0.1562 4 (36.4%) 0 0.5162
  No 132 (67.0%) 42 (80.8%)   125 (67.2%) 37 (78.7%)   7 (63.6%) 4 (100%)  
  1. 1Chi2-test, 2Fishers’ test, 3Student’s t-test, 4Mann–Whitney test, 5Breakfast, lunch and dinner with and without 1 – 3 snacks, 6Skipping courses; ie. reporting irregular eating habits, such as 1 – 2 main courses/ day or frequent snacking and no main courses, 7500 grams of fruit and vegetables/day, 8Only participants reporting regular physical activity included in this analysis, 9≥ 3 times/week at moderate or high intensity.