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Table 3 Health status in participants four years after index pregnancy presented for women with normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and as born in and outside Sweden born in or outside Sweden

From: Lifestyle and health status in a sample of Swedish women four years after pregnancy: a comparison of women with a history of normal pregnancy and women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus

  Normal pregnancy 2005 Pregnancy with GDM 2005 P-value Participants born in Sweden with normal pregnancy 2005 Participants born in Sweden with GDM 2005 P-value Participants born outside Sweden with normal pregnancy 2005 Participants born outside Sweden with GDM 2005 P-value
Present status (N = 321) (N = 107) (N = 293) (N = 81) (N = 27) (N = 25)
Pregnant or missing pregnancy status at follow up (excluded from calculations) 12 4   10 2   2 2  
Overt diabetes mellitus
  Yes 0 19 (17.8%) <0.0011 0 13 (16.0%) <0.0011 0 6 (24.0%) 0.0091
  No 321 (100%) 88 (82.2%)   293 (100%) 68 (84.0%)   27 (100%) 19 (76.0%)  
Self-rated health at follow-up
  Excellent, very good, good 291 (92.7%) 80 (80.0%) <0.0012 267 (92.4%) 66 (88.0%) 0.2252 23 (95.8%) 13 (54.2%) 0.0021
  Fair, poor 23 (7.3%) 20 (20.0%)   22 (7.6%) 9 (12.0%)   1 (4.2%) 11 (45.8%)  
Body weight at follow-up (kilograms)
  Mean (± SD) 66.5 (11.7) 73.1 (16.7) <0.0013 66.9 (12.0) 73.5 (16.8) <0.0013 62.8 (8.0) 72.1 (16.8) 0.0133
  Median (25th – 75th percentile) 65.0 (58.0-71.0) 71.0 (60.8–80.5) 0.0034 65.0 (58.0–72.0) 73.0 (60.0–81.5) 0.0104 65.0 (54.0–68.0) 69.0 (62.0– 81.2) 0.1254
  (Min –max) 43.0 – 116.0 42.0 – 122.0   43.0 – 116.0 42.0 – 122.0   50.0 – 80.0 48.0 – 109.0  
BMI at follow-up, (kg/m2)
  Underweight, (<18.49) 4 (1.3%) 2 (1.9%) <0.0012 4 (1.4%) 2 (2.5%) <0.0012 0 0 0.013
  Normal weight, (18.5-24.99) 229 (72.0%) 48 (45.7%)   208 (71.7%) 37 (45.7%)   20 (74.1%) 10 (41.7%)  
  Overweight, (25.0-29.99) 62 (19.5%) 26 (24.8%)   56 (19.3%) 21 (25.9%)   6 (22.2%) 6 (25.0%)  
  Obesity, (≥30.0) 23 (7.2%) 29 (27.6%)   22 (7.6%) 21 (25.9%)   1 (3.7%) 8 (33.3%)  
Weight change (pre-pregnancy to follow-up, kilograms)
  Mean (± SD) +1.6 (5.7) +1.3 (8.9) 0.7363 +1.5 (5.8) +0.7 (9.4) 0.3193 +2.2 (5.4) +3.6 (6.5) 0.3893
  Median (25th – 75th percentile) +1.0 (−1.0 - +3.2) +1.0 (−2.0 - +6.0) 0.7364 +1.0 (−1.0- +3.0) +1.0 (−2.0- +4.8) 0.9314 +1.5 (−1.2- +5.0) +3.0 (0 - +8.0) 0.3284
  (Min –max) −20.0 - + 35.0 −47.0 - + 20.0   −20.0 - + 35.0 −47.0 - + 22.0   −7.0 - + 16.0 −10.0 - + 16.0  
Sick leave for more than one week due to health problems 5
  Yes 60 (18.8%) 35 (33.3%) 0.0022 52 (17.7%) 27 (33.3%) 0.0022 8 (29.6%) 8 (33.3%) 0.7762
  No 260 (81.2%) 70 (66.7%)   241 (82.3%) 54 (66.7%)   19 (70.4%) 16 (66.7%)  
Medication on regular basis 6
  Yes 52 (16.2%) 45 (42.1%) <0.0012 48 (16.4%) 34 (42.0%) <0.0012 4 (14.8%) 11 (44.0%) 0.0321
  No 269 (83.8%) 62 (57.9%)   245 (83.6%) 47 (58.0%)   23 (85.2%) 14 (56.0%)  
  1. 1Fisher’s Exact Test, 2Chi2test, 3Student’s T-test, 4Mann Whitney, 5Sick leave for longer period than one week requires a medical certificate issued by a physician, 6Hormonal contraceptives were excluded in the analysis.