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Table 2 COPRA labor and delivery outcomes (N = 48)

From: A comparison of inpatient with outpatient balloon catheter cervical ripening: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Variable Inpatient N = 15 (%) Outpatient N = 33 (%) Risk difference (95 % CI)
Rupture of Membranes
Spontaneous 0 4 (12.1)a -
Artificial Rupture of Membranes 15 (100) 30 (90.9)b  
Oxytocin Infusion 14 (93.3) 23 (69.7) −23.6 % (−43.8 to −3.5)
Reason for oxytocin infusion
Induction oflabor 8 (57.1) 14 (60.9)  
Augmentation 6 (42.8) 9 (39.1)  
Duration of oxytocin infusion 5 h 9 mins 7 h 47 mins  
Mean (SDminutes) (3 h 51 mins) (4 h 59 mins)  
PGE2 given in addition to catheter (ie not ARMable after removal, 1 dose only) 2 (13.3) 4 (12.1)  
Method of delivery
Spontaneous vaginal 7 (46.7) 16 (48.5) Overall LSCS rate 22.9 %
Instrumental 3 (20.0) 11 (33.3) −15.1 % (−42.4 to 12.1)
Caesarean section 5 (33.3) 6 (18.2) c/s
Indications for caesarean section (n = 5) (n = 6) -
Fetal distress 1 (20.0) -  
Lack of progress 3 (60.0) 6 (100.0)  
Other (malpresentation, etc.) 1 (20.0) -  
Mean (SD) length of active labor, vaginal births (n = 10) 8 h 0 mins (6 h 54 min) (n = 27) 7 h 34 min (4 h 14 min)  
Vaginal delivery within 24 h of priming catheter? 4 (26.7) 11 (33.3) -
Mean (SD) time catheter inserted to active labour (vaginal delivery) 19 h 49 mins (3 h 3 mins) 17 h 28 mins (3 h 54 mins)  
Mean (SD) time catheter inserted to ARM 17 h 39 mins (5 h 6 mins) 17 h 37 mins (3 h 38 mins)  
Mean (SD) time catheter inserted to vaginal deliveryc 29 h 01 mins (8 h 5 mins) 24 h 51 mins (5 h 32 mins)  
Mean (SD) hours hospital admission to deliveryc 21 h 27 mins (5 h 18 mins) 14 h 15 mins (7 h 20 mins)  
Labor analgesiaepidurald 11 (73.3) 23 (69.7) -
Labor complicationse
Meconium-stained liquor 1 (6.7) 4 (12.1)  
PPH >500 ml (vaginal births) or 1 L c/s 2 (13.3) 6 (18.1)  
Pyrexia during labor 0 - 1 (3.0)  
Hyperstimulation 1 1f  
Failed primings - -g  
  1. aAll cases of spontaneous rupture of membranes occurred in hospital
  2. bn = 1 case of spontaneous rupture of membranes, followed by ARM
  3. cExcludes n = 1 outpatient case whose management changed & delivered spont 5 days after catheter removal
  4. dIncludes n = 2 (1 in each group of spinal anaesthesia)
  5. eWomen may have more than one labor complication. PPH, post-partum hemorrhage
  6. fWoman also received PGE2 priming gels
  7. gn = 1 change of management; women 39+3 had catheter for 12 h, high head, IOL abandoned, NVD 5 days later