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Table 1 General characteristics of the women population with spontaneous abortion (SA) and non-SA at the time of enrollment in the Health Examinee Study (HEXA), a cohort study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), 2004-2012

From: Body mass index at age 18–20 and later risk of spontaneous abortion in the Health Examinees Study (HEXA)

No.=80,447 Spontaneous Abortion  
No Yes
N=62,637 N=17,810
  N (%) N (%) p-value*
Attained education ≥12 years 14,598 (23.3) 4,484 (25.2) <0.001
Cigarette smoking before the first pregnancy 538 (0.859) 154 (0.865) 0.002
Ever consumed alcohol1 21,222 (33.9) 6,139 (34.5) <0.001
Regular exercise 32,437 (51.8) 9,211 (51.7) 0.305
Medical history before pregnancy   
 Hypertension 37 (0.06) 9 (0.05) 0.687
 Diabetes 20 (0.02) 3 (0.02) 0.291
 Chronic liver disease 154 (0.25) 35 (0.20) 0.266
 Tuberculosis 2,067 (3.30) 587 (3.30) 0.878
 Thyroid disease 211 (0.34) 73 (0.41) 0.138
Reproductive factors    
 Menarche age (years)    0.071
  ≤14 23,559 (37.6) 6,830 (38.4)  
  15 14,077 (22.5) 3,845 (21.6)  
  ≥16 23,903 (38.2) 6 816 (38.3)  
 First pregnancy age    <0.001
  ≤23 19,199 (30.7) 5,093 (28.6)  
  24–26 25,066 (40.0) 7,029 (39.5)  
  ≥27 18,372 (29.3) 5,688 (31.9)  
 First pregnancy outcome    
 Stillbirth 393 (0.63) 178 (1.00) <0.001
 Extrauterine pregnancy 195 (0.31) 67 (0.38) 0.184
 Artificial abortion 7,467 (12.0) 1,466 (8.3)  
 Number of children    <0.001
  1 6,358 (10.2) 2,062 (11.8)  
  2 37,754 (60.8) 9,974 (57.0)  
  3+ 17,866 (28.8) 5,420 (30.1)  
 Gestational diabetes 569 (0.91) 211 (1.18) <0.001
 Gestational hypertension 2,966 (4.7) 1,065 (6.0) <0.001
 Macrosomia (>4.0kg) 4,406 (7.0) 1,646 (8.2) <0.001
 Microsomia (<2.5kg) 2,390 (3.8) 995 (5.6) <0.001
  1. *p–value from χ2–test
  2. 1Due to lack of information about age of beginning of drinking, usual drinkers were included in this category