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Table 1 Characteristics of the study group (obese women with GDM)

From: Impact of gestational weight gain on obstetric and neonatal outcomes in obese diabetic women

  Total study group (n = 1806) GWG below IOM limits (<5 kg) (n = 502) GWG within IOM limits (5–9 kg) (n = 634) GWG above IOM limits (>9 kg) (n = 670)
Age (years) 33.1 ± 5.0 33.4 ± 4.8 33.5 ± 4.9 32.5 ± 5.2**
Parity = 0 38.4 % (n = 694) 38.1 % (n = 191) 37.5 % (n = 238) 39,6 % (n = 265)
  ≥ 1 61.6 % (n = 1112) 61.9 %(n = 311) 62.5 % (n = 296) 60,4 % (n = 405)
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 34.7 ± 4.2 35.5 ± 4.5** 34.7 ± 4.1 34.1 ± 3.9
GWG (total) (kg) 8.1 ± 6.3 1.2 ± 3.2** 6.9 ± 1.3 14.3 ± 4.7**
Insulin therapy 47.2 % (n = 853) 50.2 % (n = 252) 45.9 % (n = 291) 46.3 % (n = 310)
Delivery (weeks) 38.4 ± 1.6 38.3 ± 1.8 38.3 ± 1.6 38.4 ± 1.4
Preterm labour 6.8 % (n = 123) 7.0 % (n = 35) 7.7 % (n = 49) 5.8 % (n = 39)
Delivery     
Normal delivery 40.5 % (n = 715) 47.8 % (n = 231)* 39.7 % (n = 247) 36.0 % (n = 237)
Instrumental delivery 11.4 % (n = 201) 11.6 % (n = 56) 11.4 % (n = 71) 11.2 % (n = 74)
Cesarean section 48.1 % (n = 849) 40.6 % (n = 196)* 48.9 % (n = n = 305) 52.8 % (n = 348)
Neonatal birthweight (g) 3312 ± 560 3169 ± 537** 3284 ± 560 3442 ± 548**
LGA (>p90) 15.8 % (n = 274) 9.1 % (n = 43) 14.2 % (n = 87) 22.3 % (n = 144)**
Macrosomic 9.0 % (n = 157) 4.6 % (n = 22) 8.2 % (n = 51) 12.8 % (n = 84)*
SGA (<p10) 4.9 % (n = 85) 7.8 % (n = 37)* 4.6 % (n = 28) 3.1 % (n = 20)
Neonatal morbidities 19.4 % (n = 295) 18.4 % (n = 73) 18.4 % (n = 98) 21.1 % (n = 124)
Admission to the intensive unit care 3.1 % (n = 48) 3.9 % (n = 16) 2.9 % (n = 16) 2.7 % (n = 16)
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD and percentage and number of patients (in parentheses) of the total group
  2. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 (both GWG below and GWG above IOM limits were compared with GWG within IOM limits)