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Table 3 In what cases/how were care policies implemented

From: A cross-sectional survey of policies guiding second stage labor in urban Japanese hospitals, clinics and midwifery birth centers

Variables n (%)
Perineal disinfection (n=217)
 washing away by antiseptic solution 152 (59.6)
 spread antiseptic solution on perineum 60 (23.5)
 washing away by sterilized water 10 (3.9)
 washing away by tap water 4 (1.6)
 not stated 1
Episiotomy for primipara (n=137)*
 severe distress of the fetus 129 (94.2)
 prospect of severe perineal injury 120 (87.6)
 vacuum/forceps delivery 111 (81.0)
 others 5 (3.6)
Episiotomy for multipara (n=166)*
 severe distress of the fetus 149 (89.8)
 prevent severe perineal injury 140 (84.3)
 vacuum/forceps delivery 132 (79.5)
 others 7 (4.2)
Fundal pressure (n=182)*
 lower fetal heart beat 117 (64.3)
 poor fetus descent 108 (59.3)
 vacuum/forceps delivery 99 (54.4)
 stricture in area of maternal pelvic outlet 58 (31.9)
 prolonged labour 52 (28.6)
 others 18 (9.9)
Hands and knees position for correcting fetal abnormal rotation (n=149)
 depends on women’s request 98 (66.7)
 15–29 min 15 (10.2)
 30–59 min 28 (19.0)
 more than 1 h 6 (4.1)
 not stated 2
  1. *multiple responses