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Table 1 Stillbirth outcome overall and for HIV + ve only

From: Improved pregnancy outcomes with increasing antiretroviral coverage in South Africa

All women
     Bivariate Multivariable iv  
Variable Live births: n (% i) Stillbirths: n (%) p-value ii 0R iii (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 4226 (96.73) 143 (3.27) 0.006 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 5349 (97.65) 129 (2.35) 0.71 (0.56–0.91) 0.74 (0.56–0.97) 0.03
Age Category       
  < 18 812 (98.19) 15 (1.81) 0.045 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 4248 (97.52) 108 (2.48) 1.38 (0.8–2.37) 1.37 (0.79–2.38) 0.26
 25–34 3544 (96.78) 118 (3.22) 1.8 (1.05–3.1) 1.86 (1.06–3.25) 0.03
  > 34 863 (96.64) 30 (3.36) 1.88 (1.01–3.52) 1.99 (1.04–3.81) 0.037
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 6480 (96.95) 204 (3.05) 0.006 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 1420 (97.46) 37 (2.54) 0.83 (0.58–1.18) 0.71 (0.48–1.04) 0.08
 Planned Caesarean 1661 (98.34) 28 (1.66) 0.54 (0.36–0.8) 0.58 (0.39–0.88) 0.01
HIV       
 Negative 5786 (97.8) 130 (2.2) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Positive 3607 (96.88) 116 (3.12) 1.43 (1.11–1.84) 1.26 (0.97–1.65) 0.088
 Unregistered Antenatal 175 (87.5) 25 (12.5) 6.36 (4.04–10.01) 6.1 (3.86–9.64) <0.001
HIV + ve women only
     Bivariate Multivariable iv  
Variable Live births: n (%) Stillbirths: n (%) p-value 0R (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 1559 (96.35) 59 (3.65) 0.102 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 2048 (97.29) 57 (2.71) 0.74 (0.51–1.06) 0.52 (0.27–0.97) 0.041
Age Category       
  < 18 89 (95.7) 4 (4.3) 0.018 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 1167 (98.15) 22 (1.85) 0.42 (0.14–1.24) 0.79 (0.18–3.5) 0.759
 25–34 1830 (96.16) 73 (3.84) 0.89 (0.32–2.48) 1.71 (0.41–7.24) 0.463
  > 34 488 (96.83) 16 (3.17) 0.73 (0.24–2.23) 1.41 (0.31–6.4) 0.66
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 2385 (96.52) 86 (3.48) 0.093 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 548 (97.34) 15 (2.66) 0.76 (0.44–1.32) 0.75 (0.4–1.39) 0.362
 Planned Caesarean 666 (98.09) 13 (1.91) 0.54 (0.3–0.98) 0.57 (0.31–1.06) 0.074
CD4 category       
  > 500 333 (97.65) 8 (2.35) 0.047 1 (ref) Excluded as co-linear with ART regimen
 351–500 341 (99.42) 2 (0.58) 0.24 (0.05–1.16)
 201–350 327 (96.75) 11 (3.25) 1.4 (0.56–3.53)
  < 200 169 (96.02) 7 (3.98) 1.72 (0.61–4.83)
ART regimen       
 Nil ARVs 128 (86.49) 20 (13.51) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 AZT/NVP 957 (98.25) 17 (1.75) 0.11 (0.06–0.22) 0.08 (0.04–0.16) <0.001
 D4T/3TC/NVP 869 (95.81) 38 (4.19) 0.28 (0.16–0.5) 0.2 (0.11–0.38) <0.001
 EFV/TDF/FTC 1629 (97.78) 37 (2.22) 0.15 (0.08–0.26) 0.18 (0.1–0.34) <0.001
  1. i row percentage, ii Chi-square, iii Odds Ratio, iv following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, pregnancy term category, HIV, status
  2. i AZT/NVP vs D4T/3TC/NVP p-value = 0.002, ii AZT/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.041, iii D4T/3TC/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.768, iv following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, pregnancy term category, HIV status, CD4 (HIV positive mothers only), ART regimen (HIV positive mothers only)