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Table 3 Low Birth Weight overall and for HIV + ve only

From: Improved pregnancy outcomes with increasing antiretroviral coverage in South Africa

All women       
     Bivariate Multivariable v  
Variable Normal BW i (≥2500 g): n (% ii) LBW (<2500 g): n (%) p-value iii 0R iv (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 3846 (88.03) 523 (11.97) 0.238 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 4779 (87.24) 699 (12.76) 1.08 (0.95–1.21) 1.26 (1.08–1.46) 0.003
Age Category       
  < 18 717 (86.7) 110 (13.3) 0.82 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 3825 (87.81) 531 (12.19) 0.9 (0.73–1.13) 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 0.166
 25–34 3203 (87.47) 459 (12.53) 0.93 (0.75–1.17) 0.84 (0.66–1.06) 0.134
  > 34 779 (87.23) 114 (12.77) 0.95 (0.72–1.26) 0.85 (0.63–1.13) 0.264
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 5941 (88.88) 743 (11.12) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 1230 (84.42) 227 (15.58) 1.48 (1.26–1.73) 1.72 (1.42–2.07) <0.001
 Planned Caesarean 1440 (85.26) 249 (14.74) 1.38 (1.18–1.61) 1.32 (1.12–1.55) 0.001
HIV       
 Negative 5265 (89) 651 (11) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Positive 3221 (86.52) 502 (13.48) 1.26 (1.11–1.43) 1.26 (1.11–1.44) 0.001
 Unbooked 133 (66.5) 67 (33.5) 4.07 (3–5.53) 4.28 (3.15–5.82) <0.001
HIV + ve women only  
     Bivariate Multivariable iv  
Variable Normal BW (≥2500 g) : n (%) LBW (<2500 g): n (%) p-value 0R (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 1416 (87.52) 202 (12.48) 0.118 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 1805 (85.75) 300 (14.25) 1.17 (0.96–1.41) 0.65 (0.24–1.79) 0.407
Age Category       
  < 18 80 (86.02) 13 (13.98) 0.187 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 1050 (88.31) 139 (11.69) 0.81 (0.44–1.5) 1.68 (0.22–13.06) 0.618
 25–34 1631 (85.71) 272 (14.29) 1.03 (0.56–1.87) 2.11 (0.28–16.2) 0.472
  > 34 431 (85.52) 73 (14.48) 1.04 (0.55–1.97) 1.84 (0.22–15.15) 0.569
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 2177 (88.1) 294 (11.9) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 472 (83.84) 91 (16.16) 1.43 (1.11–1.84) 2.09 (1.32–3.31) 0.002
 Planned Caesarean 564 (83.06) 115 (16.94) 1.51 (1.19–1.91) 1.19 (0.64–2.21) 0.58
CD4 category       
  > 500 300 (87.98) 41 (12.02) 0.095 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 351–500 317 (92.42) 26 (7.58) 0.6 (0.36–1.01) 0.54 (0.31–0.92) 0.025
 201–350 300 (88.76) 38 (11.24) 0.93 (0.58–1.48) 0.91 (0.54–1.52) 0.718
  < 200 151 (85.8) 25 (14.2) 1.21 (0.71–2.07) 0.94 (0.51–1.72) 0.84
ART regimen       
 Nil ARVs 114 (77.03) 34 (22.97) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 AZT/NVP i, ii 877 (90.04) 97 (9.96) 0.37 (0.24–0.57) 0.06 (0.02–0.18) <0.001
 D4T/3TC/NVP iii 768 (84.67) 139 (15.33) 0.61 (0.4–0.93) 0.09 (0.03–0.24) <0.001
 EFV/TDF/FTC 1442 (86.55) 224 (13.45) 0.52 (0.35–0.78) 0.12 (0.04–0.37) <0.001
  1. i Birth weight (BW), ii row percentage, iii Chi-square, iv Odds Ratio, v following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, pregnancy term category, HIV status
  2. i AZT/NVP vs D4T/3TC/NVP p-value = 0.219, ii AZT/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.287, iii D4T/3TC/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.594, iv following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, pregnancy term category, HIV status, CD4 (HIV positive mothers only), ART regimen (HIV positive mothers only)