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Table 4 Small for gestational age overall and for HIV + ve only

From: Improved pregnancy outcomes with increasing antiretroviral coverage in South Africa

All women       
     Bivariate Multivariable vi  
Variable Normal for GA i: n (% ii) Small for GA iii: n (%) p-value iv 0R v (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 4053 (92.77) 316 (7.23) 0.066 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 5027 (91.77) 451 (8.23) 1.15 (0.99–1.34) 1.21 (1.02–1.44) 0.032
Age Category       
  < 18 755 (91.29) 72 (8.71) 0.106 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 4032 (92.56) 324 (7.44) 0.84 (0.65–1.1) 0.82 (0.63–1.08) 0.161
 25–34 3384 (92.41) 278 (7.59) 0.86 (0.66–1.13) 0.81 (0.61–1.07) 0.137
  > 34 807 (90.37) 86 (9.63) 1.12 (0.8–1.55) 1.06 (0.75–1.48) 0.750
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 6180 (92.46) 504 (7.54) 0.300 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 1340 (91.97) 117 (8.03) 1.07 (0.87–1.32) 1.21 (0.95–1.53) 0.124
 Planned Caesarean 1543 (91.36) 146 (8.64) 1.16 (0.96–1.41) 1.11 (0.91–1.35) 0.288
HIV       
 Negative 5487 (92.75) 429 (7.25) <0.001 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Positive 3417 (91.78) 306 (8.22) 1.15 (0.98–1.33) 1.15 (0.98–1.35) 0.078
 Unbooked 171 (85.5) 29 (14.5) 2.17 (1.45–3.25) 2.28 (1.5–3.45) <0.001
HIV + ve women only       
     Bivariate Multivariable iv  
Variable Normal for GA: n (% ii) Small for GA: n (%) p-value 0R (95 % CI) 0R (95 % CI) Adj. p-value
Year       
 2011 1491 (92.15) 127 (7.85) 0.471 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 2014 1926 (91.5) 179 (8.5) 1.09 (0.86–1.38) 1.53 (0.51–4.61) 0.447
Age Category       
  < 18 84 (90.32) 9 (9.68) 0.048 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 18–24 1110 (93.36) 79 (6.64) 0.66 (0.32–1.37) 0.67 (0.14–3.16) 0.609
 25–34 1741 (91.49) 162 (8.51) 0.87 (0.43–1.76) 0.80 (0.17–3.75) 0.778
  > 34 451 (89.48) 53 (10.52) 1.10 (0.52–2.31) 1.27 (0.26–6.28) 0.771
Mode of Delivery       
 Vaginal 2282 (92.35) 189 (7.65) 0.176 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 Emergency Caesarean 509 (90.41) 54 (9.59) 1.28 (0.93–1.76) 1.64 (0.98–2.74) 0.059
 Planned Caesarean 616 (90.72) 63 (9.28) 1.23 (0.92–1.66) 0.82 (0.40–1.68) 0.584
CD4 category       
  > 500 312 (91.5) 29 (8.5) 0.583 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 351–500 321 (93.59) 22 (6.41) 0.74 (0.41–1.31) 0.72 (0.40–1.29) 0.267
 201–350 307 (90.83) 31 (9.17) 1.09 (0.64–1.85) 1.20 (0.69–2.09) 0.520
  < 200 161 (91.48) 15 (8.52) 1.00 (0.52–1.92) 0.94 (0.45–1.94) 0.862
ART regimen       
 Nil ARVs 133 (89.86) 15 (10.14) 0.464 1 (ref) 1 (ref)  
 AZT/NVP i, ii 901 (92.51) 73 (7.49) 0.72 (0.40–1.29) 0.37 (0.10–1.45) 0.153
 D4T/3TC/NVP iii 824 (90.85) 83 (9.15) 0.89 (0.50–1.59) 0.29 (0.08–1.07) 0.063
 EFV/TDF/FTC 1533 (92.02) 133 (7.98) 0.77 (0.44–1.35) 0.25 (0.07–0.87) 0.030
  1. i Gestational Age (GA), ii row percentage, iii below 10th percentile, iv Chi-square, v Odds Ratio, vi following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, HIV status
  2. i AZT/NVP vs D4T/3TC/NVP p-value = 0.410, ii AZT/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.521, iii D4T/3TC/NVP vs FTC p-value = 0.800, iv following variables were adjusted for in the multivariable adjusted model, year age group, mode of delivery, HIV status, CD4 (HIV positive mothers only), ART regimen (HIV positive mothers only)