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Table 1 Percentage distribution of births attended by skilled health personnel aggregated by policy at time of birth and the fixed covariates

From: A geospatial analysis of the impacts of maternity care fee payment policies on the uptake of skilled birth care in Ghana

Background characteristics Cash and carry Free antenatal Free delivery NHIS All
% (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n)
Overall* 44.3 (5056) 49.5 (4671) 54.4 (1612) 58.6 (887) 48.6 (12,226)
Educational background      
 No formal education* 24.5 (2220) 31.0 (2084) 30.7 (695) 38.1 (326) 28.6 (5325)
 Primary 49.6 (1712) 46.2 (1020) 52.4 (385) 52.7 (208) 49.0 (3325)
 Secondary or higher* 67.6 (1124) 69.5 (1567) 78.8 (532) 76.8 (353) 71.0 (3576)
Religious affiliation      
 Christian* 52.8 (3290) 55.7 (3144) 62.4 (988) 65.4 (590) 56.0 (8012)
 Muslim* 33.9 (681) 41.0 (887) 46.5 (365) 51.5 (189) 40.7 (2122)
 Other 20.6 (1085) 20.9 (640) 26.7 (259) 26.2 (108) 21.7 (2092)
Ethnicity      
 Akan* 53.9 (2319) 57.8 (1883) 66.4 (560) 67.8 (318) 57.8 (5080)
 Ga-Dangbe 59.5 (319) 56.8 (314) 58.3 (60) 58.3 (40) 58.2 (733)
 Ewe-Guan* 41.2 (709) 49.9 (670) 60.2 (208) 60.3 (141) 48.2 (1728)
 Mole-Dagbane* 21.6 (733) 31.2 (1000) 36.7 (485) 46.9 (234) 30.6 (2452)
 Grussi-Gruma-Hausa* 22.4 (623) 28.7 (449) 25.5 (219) 43.0 (123) 26.6 (1414)
 Other* 32.9 (353) 45.5 (355) 69.2 (80) 54.5 (31) 44.1 (819)
Partner's educational status      
 No formal education* 27.4 (1972) 32.0 (1993) 33.9 (695) 40.5 (351) 31.0 (5011)
 Primary* 44.4 (1237) 34.3 (395) 38.7 (135) 47.4 (84) 42.1 (1851)
 Secondary or higher* 58.4 (1847) 63.2 (2283) 70.9 (782) 72.7 (452) 63.4 (5364)
Household wealth status      
 Poorest* 16.8 (1033) 22.2 (1435) 18.3 (591) 24.3 (292) 20.0 (3351)
 Poor* 28.8 (1073) 33.5 (1042) 49.0 (351) 44.8 (185) 34.5 (2651)
 Middle* 32.6 (896) 44.8 (859) 63.4 (259) 66.7 (151) 43.6 (2165)
 Rich* 52.7 (1016) 71.8 (710) 81.5 (242) 84.2 (156) 64.9 (2124)
 Richest* 80.3 (1038) 91.9 (625) 96.3 (169) 97.4 (103) 86.6 (1935)
Place of residence      
 Urban* 78.7 (1231) 81.2 (1303) 84.3 (504) 86.6 (297) 81.3 (3335)
 Rural* 32.3 (3825) 33.6 (3368) 37.8 (1108) 41.5 (590) 34.0 (8891)
  1. *P < 0.01; n – sample size