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Table 3 Estimated posterior odds ratios of the fixed effects and their corresponding 95 % credible intervals

From: A geospatial analysis of the impacts of maternity care fee payment policies on the uptake of skilled birth care in Ghana

Variables Model 1 OR [95 % CI] Model 2 OR [95 % CI] Model 3 OR [95 % CI] Model 4 OR [95 % CI]
Primary variable     
 Policy at time of birth     
 Cash and Carry    1.00 1.00
 Free antenatal care    1.24 [1.13, 1.35]** 1.17 [1.04, 1.31]**
 Free delivery    1.92 [1.68, 2.19]** 1.67 [1.42, 1.96]**
 NHIS    2.10 [1.79, 2.47]** 1.65 [1.37, 1.99]**
Control variables     
 Educational status     
 No formal education     1.00
 Primary     1.15 [1.01, 1.30]*
 Secondary or higher     1.66 [1.43, 1.92]**
 Religious affiliation     
 Christian     1.00
 Muslim     1.00 [0.85, 1.17]
 Other     0.56 [0.48, 0.65]**
 Partner's educational status     
 Don't know/No formal education     1.00
 Primary     1.31 [1.13, 1.50]**
 Secondary or higher     1.53 [1.36, 1.72]**
 Household wealth status     
 Poorest     1.00
 poor     1.19 [1.03, 1.37]*
 middle     1.24 [1.07, 1.44]**
 rich     1.42 [1.23, 1.66]**
 richest     2.15 [1.84, 2.53]**
 Place of residence     
 Urban     1.00
 Rural     0.33 [0.28, 0.38]**
Model summary statistics     
\( \overline{D}\left(\theta \right) \) 16,836.2 14,106.4 13,963.4 11,423.5
\( D\left(\overline{\theta}\right) \) 16,835.2 14,011.9 13,865.2 11,305.1
P D 1.0 94.5 98.2 118.4
 DIC 16,837.2 14,201.0 14,061.7 11,541.8
Posterior mean spatial effects [SD]     
 Structured NA 1.53 [0.26] 1.52 [0.26] 0.66 [0.15]
 Unstructured NA 0.02 [0.02] 0.02 [0.03] 0.02 [0.02]
  1. Model 0: null model—without covariates and spatial effects; Model 1: spatial effects only (no covariates); Model 2: policy at time of birth + spatial effects; Model 3: policy at time of birth + controls + spatial effects
  2. **P < 0.01; *p < 0.05, CI credible intervals