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Table 2 Geometric mean concentrations of pertussis antibodies in maternal and infants’ blood at birth

From: Efficacy and safety of pertussis vaccination for pregnant women – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

  Study design Intervention/ exposuretype, mean gestational week at vaccination (range) Com-parator Maternal blood birth Infant cord blood at birth
n: Vaccine/control Vaccine Geometric mean (95% CI) Control Geometric mean (95% CI) Ratio of geometric means (95% CI) p n: Vaccine/control Vaccine Geometric mean (95% CI) Control Geometric mean (95% CI) Ratio of geometric means (95% CI) p
PT (EU or IU/ml)*
 Munoz [31] RCT Tdap -- (30–32) placebo 33/14 51.0 (37.1–70.1) 9.1 (4.6–17.8) 5.6 (3.0–10.5) <0.001 31/14 68.8 (52.1–90.8) 14.0 (7.3–26.9) 4.9 (2.8–8.7) <0.001
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 51/47 17.3 (13.0–22.0) 5.7 (4.3–7.6) 3.0 (2.1–4.4) <0.001 50/47 21.0 (16.0–28.0) 7.2 (5.6–9.4) 2.9 (2.0–4.3) <0.001
 Abu Raya [26] PCS Tdap -- (≥ 20) no vac. 61/20 16.9 (10.5–27.0) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 22.8 (8.8–58.7) <0.001 61/20 17.81 (10.67–29.74) 1.12 (0.41–3.02) 15.9 (5.6–45.1) <0.001
  (subset)   (2736)   51/20 16.4 (9.6–28.0) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 22.1 (8.1–60.0) <0.001 51/20 17.3 (9.5–31.5) 1.12 (0.4–3.0) 15.4 (5.0–47.6) <0.001
  (subset)   (≥ 37)   7/20 28.1 (12.5–63.4) 0.7 (0.3–1.8) 38.0 (8.2–174.9) <0.001 7/20 21.12 (7.9–56.2) 1.12 (0.4–3.0) 18.9 (3.3–108.1) <0.001
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap – (anytime) no vac. 5/53 14.3 (−-) 7.5 (−-) 1.9 (−-) 5/53 33.5 (−-) 12.6 (−-) 2.7 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 56/41 31.4 (26.0–38.0) 6.4 (4.3–9.6) 4.9 (3.3–7.3) <0.001 58/41 100.7 (82.0–123.0) 12.4 (8.0–19.0) 8.1 (5.3–12.5) <0.001
 Healy [34] RCS Tdap 9 (1–29) before 19/86 10.5 (6.4–17.1) 14.0 (11.1–17.7) 0.8 (0.4–1.3) 0.29 19/86 17.3 (11.1–26.8) 16.7 (13.2–21.0) 1.0 (0.6–1.8) 0.90
 Gall [5] RCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac.       52/52 Mean 28.2 (SE 2.8) Mean 11.01 (SE 1.8) MD 17.2 (10.7–23.8)  
FHA (EU or IU/ml)
 Munoz [31] RCT Tdap -- (30–32) placebo 33/14 184.8 (142.8–239.1) 21.9 (10.9–44.1) 8.4 (4.8–15.0) <0.001 31/14 234.2 (184.6–297.3) 25.1 (10.5–60.3) 9.3 (4.9–17.6) <0.001
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 49/47 139.0 (109.0–176.0) 17.3 (14.0–21.4) 8.0 (5.8–11.0) <0.001 49/46 93.0 (65.0–133.0) 27.3 (20.9–36.7) 3.4 (2.2–5.4) <0.001
 Abu Raya [26] PCS Tdap -- (≥ 20) no vac. 61/20 187.4 (162.9–215.7) 13.4 (8.9–20.3) 14.0 (10.0–19.4) <0.001 61/20 190.2 (160.9–224.8) 17.1 (10.2–28.7) 11.1 (7.4–16.6) <0.001
  (subset)   (2736)   51/20 192.0 (165.9–222.3) 13.4 (8.9–20.3) 14.3 (10.2–20.0) <0.001 51/20 196.7 (163.4–236.9) 17.1 (10.2–28.7) 11.5 (7.5–17.6) <0.001
  (subset)   (≥ 37)   7/20 155.8 (109.3–222.2) 13.4 (8.9–20.3) 11.6 (5.7–23.7) <0.001 7/20 138.0 (97.6–195.2) 17.1 (10.2–28.7) 8.1 (3.3–19.5) <0.001
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap – (anytime) no vac. 5/53 32.5 (−-) 9.6 (−-) 3.4 (−-) 5/53 66.1 (−-) 15.9 (−-) 4.2 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 56/41 107.0 (91.0–126.0) 21.4 (16.6–27.5) 5.0 (3.8–6.6) <0.001 58/41 140.0 (109.0–180.0) 27.5 (21.5–35.0) 5.1 (3.6–7.3) <0.001
 Healy [34] RCS Tdap 9 (1–29) before 19/86 49.3 (28.4–85.8) 50.9 (40.6–63.9) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.91 19/86 87.6 (56.3–136.4) 73.0 (57.6–92.6) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.51
 Gall [5] RCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac.       52/52 Mean 104.2 (SE 21.7) Mean 26.8 (SE 4.0) MD 77.3 (33.6–121.0) <0.001
PRN (EU or IU/ml)
 Munoz [31] RCT Tdap -- (30–32) placebo 45/35 184.5 (110.2–308.8) 12.2 (5.2–28.4) 15.1 (5.9–38.6) <0.001 35/35 219.0 (134.4–357.0) 14.4 (5.4–38.4) 15.2 (5.9–39.3) <0.001
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 49/48 111.0 (76.0–163.0) 9.4 (6.9–12.5) 11.8 (7.3–19.1) <0.001 49/47 124 (86–179) 13.9 (10.5–18.2) 8.9 (5.6–14.1) <0.001
 Abu Raya [26] PCS Tdap -- (≥ 20) no vac. 61/20 166.0 (125.7–219.4) 8.5 (3.5–20.3) 19.6 (10.0–38.6) <0.001 61/20 162.1 (120.4–218.2) 10.6 (4.5–25.3) 15.3 (7.6–30.7) <0.001
  (subset)   (2736)   51/20 164.0 (119.5–225.1) 8.5 (3.5–20.3) 19.4 (9.4–39.9) <0.001 51/20 161.5 (114.7–227.5) 10.6 (4.5–25.3) 15.2 (7.2–32.1) <0.001
  (subset)   (≥ 37)   7/20 181.6 (65.5–503.0) 8.5 (3.5–20.3) 21.5 (4.5–101.4) <0.001 7/20 172.9 (68.7–434.8) 10.6 (4.5–25.3) 16.3 (3.5–75.0) <0.001
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 5/53 24.4 (−-) 6.4 (−-) 3.8 (−-) 5/53 48.5 (−-) 8.9 (−-) 5.5 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 57/41 602.0 (485.5–747.0) 18.0 (13.0–24.0) 33.4 (23.4–47.9) <0.001 57/41 697.0 (573.0–848.0) 21.0 (15.5–28.0) 33.2 (23.7–46.5) <0.001
 Healy [34] RCS Tdap 9 (1–29) before 19/86 40.4 (18.9–87.3) 39.5 (28.3–55.0) 1.0 (0.5–2.2) 0.96 19/86 70 (32.5–150.5) 41.7 (81.6–4.07) 1.2 (0.5–2.6) 0.65
 Gall [5] RCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac.       52/52 Mean 333.0 (SE 56.4) Mean 24.7 (SE 5.8) MD 308.3(195.8–420.0) <0.001
FIM (EU or IU/ml)
 Munoz [31] RCT Tdap -- (30–32) no vac. 11/38 1485.7 (979.9–2252.6) 34.9 (16.3–74.8) 42.6 (19.5–93.1) <0.001 15/32 1867.0 (1211.7–2876.8) 51.8 (22.8–118) 36.0 (15.8–82.1) <0.001
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 5/53 360.3 (−-) 17.7 (−-) 20.4 (−-) 5/53 912.9 (−-) 25.7 (−-) 35.5 (−-)
 Healy [34] RCS Tdap 9 (1–29) before 11/38 103.1 (42.7–249.0) 138.2 (97.2–196.5) 0.7 (0.3–1.7) 0.49 15/32 191.8 (84.5–435.7) 182.6 (127.7–261.2) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 0.91
 Gall [5] RCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 51/26      49/21 Mean 11,989.0 (SE 189.9) Mean 82.8 (SE 14.59) MD 1116.2 (738.3–1494.0) <0.001
  1. RCT randomised control trial, PCS prospective cohort study, RCS retrospective cohort study, Tdap a combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis vaccine, TdaP-IPV a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, TT tetanus toxoid (tetanus only vaccine), SD standard deviation, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval, PT pertussis toxin, FHA filamentous hemagglutinin, PRN pertactin, FIM fimbriae types 2 and 3; no vac, not receiving Tdap or pertussis-containing vaccine during pregnancy; before, Tdap before pregnancy; before, Tdap before pregnancy; −-, data not reported or not calculable. *1 EU = 1 IU