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Table 3 Geometric mean concentrations of pertussis antibodies in infants’ blood at ages two and 5 months

From: Efficacy and safety of pertussis vaccination for pregnant women – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

  Study design Intervention/ exposure type, mean gestational week at vaccination (range) Com-parator Infant blood at 2 months of age (before primary vaccination) Infant blood at 5 months of age (after primary vaccination
  n: Vaccine /control Vaccine Geometric mean (95% CI) Control Geometric mean (95% CI) Ratio of geometric means (95% CI) p n: Vaccine /control Vaccine Geometric mean (95% CI) Control Geometric mean (95% CI) Ratio of geometric means (95% CI) p
PT (EU or IU/ml)*
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 45/35 4.2 (2.9–5.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 5.3 (3.0–9.3) <0.001 35/35 70 (58–84) 67 (53–84) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 0.76
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 11/38 15.4 (−-) 4.8 (−-) 3.2 (−-)   15/32 56.8 (−-) 75.2 (−-) 0.8 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 51/26 15.5 (12.1–20) 1.1 (0.7–1.6) 14.1 (9.0–22.1) <0.001 49/21 29 (25–35) 54 (42–69) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) <0.001
 Ladhani [35] RCS TdaP/IPV -- (−-) no vac.       129/203 28.8 (25.7–32.4) 43.2 (39.4–47.2) 0.7 (0.6–0.8) <0.001
FHA (EU or IU /ml)
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 45/35 59 (48–73) 23.1 (19.7–27) 2.6 (1.9–3.4) <0.001 35/35 77 (66–90) 66.6 (56–78) 1.2 (0.9–1.4) 0.20
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 11/38 41.6 (−-) 5.6 (−-) 7.4 (−-) 15/32 61.4 (−-) 83.6 (−-) 0.7 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 51/26 121 (100–145) 23 (19–27) 5.3 (4.0–7.0) <0.001 49/21 65 (56–75) 54 (41–70) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 0.19
 Ladhani [35] RCS TdaP/IPV -- (−-) no vac.       131/199 25.5 (23.0–28.3) 41.1 (37.5–45.1) 0.4 (0.2–0.6) <0.001
PRN (EU or IU /ml)
 Hoang [30] RCT Tdap 26 (19–35) TT 45/35 46 (32–66) 7.8 (6.6–9.4) 5.9 (3.8–9.1) <0.001 35/35 83 (65–104) 132.6 (104–168) 0.6 (0.5–0.9) 0.006
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 11/38 32.1 (−-) 3.9 (−-) 8.2 (−-) 15/32 34.1 (−-) 50.7 (−-) 0.7 (−-)
 Maertens [29] PCS Tdap 29 (22–33) no vac. 51/26 253 (183–351) 17 (14.5–21) 14.9 (9.3–23.8) <0.001 49/21 68 (56–84) 87 (62–121) 1.2 (0.9–23.8) 0.19
FIM (EU or IU /ml)
 Hardy-Fairbanks [33] PCS Tdap -- (anytime) no vac. 11/38 296.4 (−-) 13.0 (−-) 22.8 (−-) 15/32 15.0 (−-) 10.0 (−-) 1.5 (−-)
 Ladhani [35] RCS TdaP/IPV -- (−-) no vac.       130/197 113.9 (99.0–131.1) 224.9 (196.1–258.0) 0.5 (0.2–1,3) 0.16
  1. RCT randomised control trial, PCS prospective cohort study, RCS retrospective cohort study, Tdap a combined tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis vaccine. TdaP-IPV a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine, TT tetanus toxoid (tetanus only vaccine), SD standard deviation, MD mean difference, CI confidence interval, PT pertussis toxin, FHA filamentous hemagglutinin, PRN pertactin, FIM fimbriae types 2 and 3; no vac, not receiving Tdap or pertussis-containing vaccine during pregnancy; before, Tdap before pregnancy; −-, data not reported or not calculable.*1 EU = 1 IU