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Table 3 Factors associated with place of delivery in rural Ghana (N = 431 unless stated)

From: They receive antenatal care in health facilities, yet do not deliver there: predictors of health facility delivery by women in rural Ghana

Exposure variable n Place of delivery P-value
Home Health facility
n (%) n (%)
Age (years)     < 0.001
 15–19 32 5 (15.6) 27 (84.4)  
 20–24 99 20 (20.2) 79 (79.0)  
 25–29 100 37 (37.0) 63 (63.0)  
 30–34 79 33 (41.8 46 (58.2)  
 35–39 67 36 (53.7) 31 (46.3)  
 40 and above 46 30 (65.2) 16 (34.8)  
Marital status     0.921a
 Single 8 2 (25.0) 6 (75.0)  
 Married 402 154 (38.3) 248 (61.7)  
 Cohabiting 4 1 (25.0) 3 (75.0)  
 Separated 5 2 (40.0) 3 (60.0)  
 Widow 4 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0)  
Occupation     < 0.001
 Unemployed 79 49 (62.0) 30 (38.0)  
 Farmer 274 90 (32.9) 184 (67.1)  
 Self-employed 62 21 (33.9) 41 (66.1)  
 Formal sector employee 8 1 (12.5) 7 (87.5)  
Highest educational level attained     < 0.001
 No education 172 107 (62.2) 65 (37.8)  
 Primary 137 42 (30.7) 95 (69.3)  
 Middle/Junior High 67 8 (11.9) 59 (88.1)  
 Secondary and above 47 4 (8.5) 43 (91.5)  
Religion     < 0.001
 Traditional 115 70 (60.9) 45 (39.1)  
 Christian 263 76 (28.9) 187 (71.1)  
 Moslem 45 15 (33.3) 30 (66.7)  
Ethnicity     0.487a
 Builsa 413 158 (38.3) 255 (61.7)  
 Mamprusi 4 0 (0.0) 4 (100.0)  
 Kassena 4 2 (50.0) 2 (50.0)  
 Sissala 2 1 (50.0) 1 (50.0)  
Parity     < 0.001
 1 87 12 (13.8) 75 (86.2)  
 2 101 32 (31.7) 69 (68.3)  
 3 73 23 (31.5) 50 (68.49)  
 4 86 40 (46.5) 46 (53.5)  
 5+ 76 54 (71.1) 22 (28.9)  
Health insurance status during recent pregnancy (N = 351)     < 0.001
 Invalid insurance 97 51 (52.6) 46 (47.4)  
 Valid insurance 254 65 (25.6) 189 (74.4)  
Exposure to information on delivery care     0.001
 Yes 387 138 (35.7) 249 (64.3)  
 No 36 23 (63.9) 13 (36.1)  
Gestation of pregnancy at the onset of ANC (N = 418)     < 0.001
 First trimester 180 7 (3.9) 173 (96.1)  
 Second trimester and beyond 238 149 (62.6) 89 (37.4)  
Number of ANC visit made before delivery (N = 418)     < 0.001
 Less than 4 visits 134 115 (85.8) 19 (14.2)  
 4 and more visits 284 41 (14.4) 243 (85.6)  
  1. aFisher’s exact test